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::Voluntary action

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Voluntary action is an anticipated goal-orientated movement. This psychological concept is part of cognitive psychology, philosophy, neurology, criminology, and many other fields. It is associated with consciousness and will. Voluntary action works with action effect. Action effect is when an individual has learned to associate a particular action with a particular outcome. Thus, voluntary action is demonstrated when one cognitively identifies the desired outcome and pairs it with the action it will take to achieve it. According to psychologist such as Tolman this concept is applicable to humans and animals alike. <ref>Hommel, B.(2003). Acquisition and control of voluntary action. In Roth, Gerhard [Ed]. Voluntary action: Brains, minds, and sociality. (pp. 34-48). New York, NY: Oxford University Press</ref> However, there are some criticisms to the theory of voluntary action. Psychologist Charles Nuckolls explains in his paper that voluntary action is based on the principle that we are in control of our own actions. He states that it is not known how we come to plan what actions will be executed.<ref>Nuckolls, C. (2004). Toward a cultural psychology of voluntary action beliefs. Anthropos, 99(2), 411-425</ref>


Voluntary action sections
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