::Ukrainian language


Language::russian    Ukraine::slavic    Title::oblast    Polish::soviet    Spoken::which    Dialect::russia

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Ukrainian {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} (українська мова{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ukrayins'ka mova, pronounced [ukrɑˈjiɲsʲkɐ ˈmɔwɐ]) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script (see Ukrainian alphabet).

Until the 20th century it was known in Russia as Little-Russian language (Russian: малороссийский язык{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), while in Poland as Rusyn language or Ruthenian language (Polish: język rusiński{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}).

Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language to the Old East Slavic of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. After the fall of the Kievan Rus' as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language. The Modern Ukrainian language has been in common use since the late 17th century, associated with the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate. From 1804 until the Russian Revolution, the Ukrainian language was banned from schools in the Russian Empire, of which the biggest part of Ukraine (Central, Eastern and Southern) was a part at the time.<ref name="schools">Eternal Russia: Yeltsin, Gorbachev, and the Mirage of Democracy by Jonathan Steele, Harvard University Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0-674-26837-1 (p. 217)</ref> It has always maintained a sufficient base in Western Ukraine, where the language was never banned,<ref name="WUkraineL">Purism and Language: A Study in Modem Ukrainian and Belorussian Nationalism by Paul Wexler, Indiana University Press, ISBN 087750-175-0 (page 309)</ref> in its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors.<ref name="WUkraineL"/><ref name="UkrGrammar30">Contested Tongues: Language Politics and Cultural Correction in Ukraine by Laada Bilaniuk, Cornell Univ. Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8014-7279-4 (page 78)</ref>

The standard Ukrainian language is regulated by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NANU), particularly by its Institute for the Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian language-information fund, and Potebnya Institute of Language Studies. Lexically, the closest language to Ukrainian is Belarusian (84% of common vocabulary), followed by Polish (70%), Serbo-Croatian (68%), Slovak (66%) and Russian (62%).<ref name="ukr_vocabulary_in_common">Мови Європи: відстані між мовами за словниковим складом (Languages of Europe: distances according to the vocabulary composition). (Ukrainian){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}</ref> The Ukrainian language retains a degree of mutual intelligibility with Belarusian and Russian.<ref name="classification145"> Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60–121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..."
C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language."
Bernard Comrie. 1981. The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge). Pg. 145–146: "The three East Slavonic languages are very close to one another, with very high rates of mutual intelligibility...The separation of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian as distinct languages is relatively recent...Many Ukrainians in fact speak a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian, finding it difficult to keep the two languages apart..."
The Swedish linguist Alfred Jensen wrote in 1916 that the difference between the Russian and Ukrainian languages was significant and that it could be compared to the difference between Swedish and Danish. Jensen, Alfred. Slaverna och världskriget. Reseminnen och intryck från Karpaterna till Balkan 1915–16.. Albert Bonniers förlag, Stockholm, 1916, p. 145. </ref>

Ukrainian language sections
Intro  Linguistic development of the Ukrainian language  History of the Ukrainian spoken language's usage  Literature and the Ukrainian literary language  Current usage  Language structure  Classification and relationship to other languages  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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