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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.<ref name=HLB2014W>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side among others.<ref name=Donnan2008/><ref name=HLB2014S/> Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA).<ref name=HLB2014S>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Hemorrhagic strokes may also be associated with a severe headache.<ref name=HLB2014S/> The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent.<ref name=HLB2014W/> Long term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.<ref name=HLB2014S/>

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure.<ref name=HLB2014C>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation among others.<ref name=Donnan2008/><ref name=HLB2014C/> An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel.<ref name=HLB2014T/> A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding either directly into the brain or into the space surrounding the brain.<ref name=HLB2014T>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=Feigin05>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Bleeding may occur due to a brain aneurysm.<ref name=HLB2014T/> Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.<ref name=HLB2014D>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Prevention includes decreasing risk factors as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.<ref name=Donnan2008/> A stroke often requires emergency care.<ref name=HLB2014W/> An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.<ref name=Donnan2008>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

In 2010 approximately 17 million people had a stroke and 33 million people had previously had a stroke and were still alive. Between 1990 and 2010 the number of strokes which occurred each year decreased by approximately 10% in the developed world and increased by 10% in the developing world.<ref name=Fei2013/> In 2013, stroke was the second most frequent cause of death after coronary artery disease, accounting for 6.4 million deaths (12% of the total).<ref name=GDB2013/> About 3.3 million deaths resulted from ischemic stroke while 3.2 million deaths resulted from hemorrhagic stroke.<ref name=GDB2013>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> About half of people who have had a stroke live less than one year.<ref name=Donnan2008/> Overall, two thirds of strokes occurred in those over 65 years old.<ref name=Fei2013>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Stroke sections
Intro  Classification  Signs and symptoms  Causes  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Prevention  Management  Prognosis  Epidemiology  History  Research  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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