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{{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:37|4|55|N|22|25|25|E|region:GR_type:city |primary |name= }}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" Σπάρτα{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} / Λακεδαίμων{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ="3" class="maptable" style="text-align:center"
Lambda was used in Spartan army as symbol of Lacedaemon. ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
Territory of ancient Sparta


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Sparta


="2" Languages Doric Greek

="2" Religion Greek polytheism

="2" King ||style="vertical-align:bottom;" See list - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - ="2" LegislatureGerousia ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Messenian War ="vertical-align: bottom;"685–668 BC ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Battle of Thermopylae ="vertical-align: bottom;"480 BC ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Peloponnesian War ="vertical-align: bottom;"431–404 BC ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Battle of Mantinea ="vertical-align: bottom;"362 BC
Lacedaemon

900s–192 BC
 

Government Oligarchy
Historical era Classical antiquity
 •  Foundation 900s BC
 •  Annexed by Achaea 192 BC

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Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the ancient shrine to Helen and Menelaus constructed in the Bronze Age city that stood on the hill of Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas River overlooking the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive ridges of Mount Taygetus are in evidence.

Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) or Lacedaemon ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC,{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.

Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War,<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> from which it emerged victorious, though at great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC. It then underwent a long period of decline, especially in the Middle Ages, when many Spartans moved to live in Mystras. Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives.

Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens, who enjoyed full rights), mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans), perioikoi (freedmen), and helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved non-Spartan local population). Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world.

Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning.Unknown extension tag "ref" This love or admiration of Sparta is known as Laconism or Laconophilia. At its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some 20,000 – 35,000 free residents, plus numerous helots and perioikoi (“dwellers around”). At 40,000 – 50,000 it was one of the largest Greek cities;<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref>http://books.google.dk/books?id=oafCBYBbMRgC&pg=PA22&dq=ancient+sparta+population+of+50,000&hl=da&sa=X&ei=CiiCU_j0L8avOd2HgcgL&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ancient%20sparta%20population%20of%2050%2C000&f=false</ref> however, according to Thucydides, the population of Athens in 431 BC was 360,000 – 610,000, making it unlikely that Athens was smaller than Sparta in 5th century BC.Unknown extension tag "ref" The French classicist François Ollier in his 1933 look Le mirage spartiate ("The Spartan Mirage") warned that a major scholarly problem regarding Sparta is that all the surviving accounts of Sparta were written by non-Spartans who often presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta.<ref>Hodkinson, Stephen "The Imaginary Spartan Politeria" pages 222-281 from The Imaginary Polis: Symposium, January 7-10, 2004 edited by Mogens Herman Hansen, Copenhagen: Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2005 page 222.</ref> Ollier's theory of the "Spartan mirage" has been widely accepted by scholars.<ref>Hodkinson, Stephen "The Imaginary Spartan Politeria" pages 222-281 from The Imaginary Polis: Symposium, January 7-10, 2004 edited by Mogens Herman Hansen, Copenhagen: Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2005 page 222.</ref>


Sparta sections
Intro  Names  Geography  Mythology  Archaeology of the classical period  History  Structure of Classical Spartan society  Life in Classical Sparta  Role of women  Laconophilia  Notable ancient Spartans  See also  Notes and references  Sources  External links  

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