In text::Smiley


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In text On the Internet, the smiley has become a visual means of conveyance that uses images. On September 19, 1982, Scott Fahlman from Carnegie Mellon University first proposed using the emoticon :-) to mark jokes from serious posts in online message boards.<ref>Fahlman's original message Retrieved October 27, 2013.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> There is no history of the smiley/emoticons occurring prior to this on what would become the Internet. Fahlman stated “I propose that [sic] the following character sequence for joke markers: :-) . Read it sideways. Actually, it is probably more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes, given current trends. For this, use: :-(.” This suggestion took a symbol used predominantly marketing and it “became an integral part of online communication, if not always a welcome one. These "smileys," as they came to be known, were effectively the first online irony marks.” As the digital age evolved the need for smileys that were easily understood across all cultures gave birth to the emoji.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

One of the first uses of the smiley in text may have been in Robert Herrick's poem To Fortune (1648),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> which contains the line "Upon my ruines (smiling yet :)". Journalist Levi Stahl has suggested that this may have been an intentional "orthographic joke", but this interpretation of the punctuation is disputed, and there are citations of similar punctuation in a non-humorous context, even within Herrick's own work.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is likely that the parenthesis was added later by modern editors.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The smiley is the printable version of characters 1 and 2 of (black-and-white versions of) codepage 437 (1981) of the first IBM PC and all subsequent PC compatible computers. For modern computers, all versions of Microsoft Windows after Windows 95<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> can use the smiley as part of Windows Glyph List 4, although some computer fonts miss some characters, and some characters cannot be reproduced by programs not compatible with Unicode.<ref>Announcing WGL Assistant. Announcement: WGL Assistant V1.1 Beta available, comp.fonts, 27 July 1999, Microsoft Typography – News archive.</ref> It also appears in Unicode's Basic Multilingual Plane.<ref>wikibooks:Unicode/Character reference/2000-2FFF</ref>

Unicode smiley characters :
U+263A Alt+1 White Smiling Face
U+263B Alt+2 Black Smiling Face
Unicode also contains the "sad" face:
U+2639 White Frowning Face

Smiley sections
Intro  History   In text    Transforming Smiley into graphical emoticons    Licensing and legal issues    See also    References    External links   

In text
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