Actions

::Quran

::concepts



{{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} The Quran ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}[n 1] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} al-qurʼān,[n 2] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Arabic: الله‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Allah).<ref name="Britannica"></ref> It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.<ref>Alan Jones, The Koran, London 1994, ISBN 1842126091, opening page.</ref><ref>Arthur Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, London 1956, ISBN 0684825074, p. x.</ref> Quranic chapters are called suras and verses, ayahs.

Manuscript of the Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
11th-century North African Quran in the British Museum.
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − written by Ali.

Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril),<ref name=Lambert>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Williams & Drew">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE,<ref>

  • Chronology of Prophetic Events, Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2001) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
  • Quran 17:105</ref> when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.<ref name="Britannica"/><ref name = LivRlgP338>Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.</ref><ref name = QuranC17V106>Quran 17:106</ref> Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book }}</ref> and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad.

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations.<ref name="Donner-Companion" /> Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it.<ref name=jecampo/> These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran we have today. However, the existence of variant readings, with mostly minor and some significant variations, and the early unvocalized Arabic script mean the relationship between Uthman's codex to both the text of today's Quran and to the revelations of Muhammad's time is still unclear.<ref name="Donner-Companion">Donner, Fred, "The historical context" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 31–33.</ref>

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.<ref name=sanigosian>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.<ref>Nasr (2003), p. 42{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Full |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[full citation needed] }}</ref><ref>Quran 2:67–76</ref> The Quran is used along with the hadith to interpret sharia law.<ref>Handbook of Islamic Marketing, Page 38, G. Rice - 2011</ref> During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.<ref>Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives - Page 193, Brian V Street - 2001</ref>

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Some Muslims read Quranic ayah (verse) with elocution, which is often called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on the tafsir.<ref>Apocalypse And/or Metamorphosis - Page 81, Norman Oliver Brown - 1991</ref>


Quran sections
Intro  Etymology and meaning  History  Significance in Islam  Text and arrangement  Contents  Literary style  Interpretation  Translations  Recitation  Writing and printing  Relationship with other literature  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  [[Quran?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology and meaning
<<>>

Quran::first    Title::islam    Arabic::quranic    Muhammad::which    Quran::books    Meaning::qur'an

{{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} The Quran ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}[n 1] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} al-qurʼān,[n 2] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Arabic: الله‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Allah).<ref name="Britannica"></ref> It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.<ref>Alan Jones, The Koran, London 1994, ISBN 1842126091, opening page.</ref><ref>Arthur Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, London 1956, ISBN 0684825074, p. x.</ref> Quranic chapters are called suras and verses, ayahs.

Manuscript of the Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
11th-century North African Quran in the British Museum.
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − written by Ali.

Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril),<ref name=Lambert>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Williams & Drew">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE,<ref>

  • Chronology of Prophetic Events, Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2001) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
  • Quran 17:105</ref> when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.<ref name="Britannica"/><ref name = LivRlgP338>Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.</ref><ref name = QuranC17V106>Quran 17:106</ref> Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book }}</ref> and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad.

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations.<ref name="Donner-Companion" /> Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it.<ref name=jecampo/> These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran we have today. However, the existence of variant readings, with mostly minor and some significant variations, and the early unvocalized Arabic script mean the relationship between Uthman's codex to both the text of today's Quran and to the revelations of Muhammad's time is still unclear.<ref name="Donner-Companion">Donner, Fred, "The historical context" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 31–33.</ref>

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.<ref name=sanigosian>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.<ref>Nasr (2003), p. 42{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Full |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[full citation needed] }}</ref><ref>Quran 2:67–76</ref> The Quran is used along with the hadith to interpret sharia law.<ref>Handbook of Islamic Marketing, Page 38, G. Rice - 2011</ref> During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.<ref>Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives - Page 193, Brian V Street - 2001</ref>

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Some Muslims read Quranic ayah (verse) with elocution, which is often called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on the tafsir.<ref>Apocalypse And/or Metamorphosis - Page 81, Norman Oliver Brown - 1991</ref>


Quran sections
Intro  Etymology and meaning  History  Significance in Islam  Text and arrangement  Contents  Literary style  Interpretation  Translations  Recitation  Writing and printing  Relationship with other literature  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  [[Quran?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology and meaning
<<>>