The present (or now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time,<ref>Hegeler, E. C., & Carus, P. (1890). The Monist. La Salle, Ill. [etc.]: Published by Open Court for the Hegeler Institute. page 443.</ref> not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain). It is a period of time between the past and the future, and can vary in meaning from being an instant to a day or longer. In radiocarbon dating, the "present" is defined as AD 1950.
It is sometimes represented as a hyperplane in space-time,<ref>Sattig, T. (2006). The language and reality of time. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Page 37.</ref> typically called "now", although modern physics demonstrates that such a hyperplane cannot be defined uniquely for observers in relative motion. The present may also be viewed as a duration (see specious present).<ref name="JamesW">James, W. (1893). The principles of psychology. New York: H. Holt and Company. Page 609.</ref><ref>Hodder, A. (1901). The adversaries of the sceptic; or, The specious present, a new inquiry into human knowledge. Chapter II, The Specious Present. London: S. Sonnenschein &. Pages 36 - 56.</ref>
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