::Personal identity


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What does it take for a person to persist from moment to moment — for the same person to exist at different moments?

In philosophy, the matter of personal identity<ref>Personal Identity [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]</ref> comprises the related subjects of contiguity (persistence),<ref group="note">See also: Continuum (measurement), Persistent data structure, and Habit (psychology)</ref> change,<ref group="note">See: Change (mathematics), Personal development and Impermanence.</ref> sameness,<ref group="note">See: Difference (philosophy) and Distinct.</ref> and time. Conceptually, personal identity is the distinct personality of a man or woman, and concerns the persisting entity particular to him or her. As such, the personal identity structure remains the same, as the previous version of the individual characteristics that arise from personality, by which a person is known to other people.<ref>Essays in Radical Empiricism, "Does "consciousness" Exist?" William James, Ralph Barton Perry. 1912.</ref><ref group="note">See also: Consciousness.</ref>

Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.<ref>Personal Identity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)</ref><ref>Identity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)</ref> That is, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a person at one time and a person at another time can be said to be the same person, persisting through time;<ref group="note"> or, the essence of a self-conscious person, that which enables the person to be uniquely what him- or herself, and which further persists over time, despite superficial modifications, making him or her same person at different times.</ref>

In contemporary philosophy of mind, the matter of personal identity is referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity.<ref group="note">Greek: Διαχρονικός (Diahronikos)</ref><ref>An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Volumes 1-3. By John Locke</ref> The synchronic problem concerns the question of: What features and traits characterize a person at a given time.<ref group="note">See: Synchronicity and Synchronization.</ref> In Continental philosophy and in Analytic philosophy, enquiry to the nature of Identity is common. Continental philosophy deals with conceptually maintaining identity when confronted by different philosophic propositions, postulates, and presuppositions about the world and its nature.<ref>Self and Subjectivity; "Identity, Sex, and the Metaphysics of Substance". Edited by Kim Atkins. p257.</ref><ref>Cultural Theory: An Anthology. Edited by Imre Szeman, Timothy Kaposy. p481. "Identity, Sex, and the Metaphysics of Substance"</ref>

Personal identity sections
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