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Republic of Panama
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Pro Mundi Beneficio"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
"For the Benefit of the World"
Anthem: Himno Istmeño{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}  (Spanish)
File:Panama National Anthem.ogg
Capital
and largest city
Panama City
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:8|58|N|79|32|W|type:city||

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Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html</ref>
Demonym Panamanian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Juan Carlos Varela
 -  Vice President Isabel Saint Malo
Legislature National Assembly
Independence
 -  from Spain November 28, 1821 
 -  from Colombia November 3, 1903 
Area
 -  Total 75,517 km2 (118th)
29,157 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.9
Population
 -  July 2014 est. census 3,608,431 <ref name="cia.gov">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Density 54.2/km2 (156th)
140.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $83.421 billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Per capita $21,634<ref name=imf2/>
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $49.142 billion<ref name=imf2/>
 -  Per capita $12,744<ref name=imf2/>
Gini (2012)positive decrease 51.9<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high
HDI (2013)Increase 0.765<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high · 65th
Currency {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}} (PAB, USD)
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +507
ISO 3166 code PA
Internet TLD .pa

Panama ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} PAN-ə-mah; Spanish: Panamá{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [panaˈma]), officially called the Republic of Panama (Spanish: República de Panamá{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), is a country in Central America situated between North and South America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.

Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.<ref name="cia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} And: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} See also: IMF.org</ref> and is also the fastest growing economy and largest per capita consumer in Central America. In 2013, Panama ranked 5th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index, and 59th in the world.<ref name=HDI10>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere else on the planet.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Etymology

There are several theories about the origin of the name "Panama". Some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of trees. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, and that the name means "many butterflies" in an indigenous language.

The best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach bore the name "Panamá", which meant "an abundance of fish". Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, stopped in the small indigenous fishing town. This was communicated to the Crown and in 1517 Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empire's Pacific city in this site. The new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific.

Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means "abundance of fish, trees and butterflies". This is the official definition given in social studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others believe the word Panama comes from the Kuna word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".<ref name = PAN>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Panama sections
Intro  History  Geography  Politics  Economy  Society  Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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