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Ottoman constitution of 1876

The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (,"basic law"; Turkish: Kanûn-u Esâsî{{#invoke:Category handler|main}})<ref>For a scientific English translation of the Ottoman Constitution see, Tilmann J. Röder,The Separation of Powers: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, in: Rainer Grote and Tilmann J. Röder, Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries (Oxford University Press 2012), p. 321-3372. The article includes the following documents: The Basic Law (Kanun-e Esasi) of the Ottoman Empire (7th Zi’lhijjeh 1293 / December 23, 1876); Law No. 130 on the Revision of Some Articles of the Basic Law of 7th Zi’lhijjeh 1293 (5th Sha’ban 1327 / August 8, 1909); Law No. 318 Revising the Articles 7, 35, and 43 Revised on 5th Sha’ban 1327 (2nd Rejeb 1332 – May 15, 1914); Law No. 80 Revising the Article 102 of the Basic Law of the 7th Zi’lhijjeh 1293 and the Articles 7 and 43 Revised on 2nd Rejeb 1332 (26th Rebi’ü-’l-Evvel 1333 – January 29, 1914); Law No. 307 Revising the Revision of Article 76 of 5th Sha’ban 1327 (4th Jumada-‘l-Ula 1334 – February 25, 1916); Law on the Revision of the Revised Art. 7 of the Basic Law of 26th Rebi’ü-’l-Evvel 1333 and the Deletion of the Revised Art. 35 of 2nd Rejeb 1332 (4th Jumada-‘l-Ula 1334 – February 25, 1916); Law No. 370 Revising Article 72 of the Basic Law of 7th Zi’lhijjeh 1293 (15th Jumada-‘l-Ula 1334 – March 7, 1916); Law No 102 Revising Art. 69 of the Basic Law (8th Jumada-‘l-Ula 1334 – March 21, 1918).</ref> was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.<ref>For a modern English translation of the constitution and related laws see, Tilmann J. Röder, The Separation of Powers: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, in: Grote/Röder, Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries (Oxford University Press 2011).</ref> Written by members of the Young Ottomans, particularly Midhat Pasha, during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909), the constitution was only in effect for two years, from 1876 to 1878 in a period known as the First Constitutional Era. Historically, however, it represented the first modern constitution in the world outside Europe and the Americas.

In the course of their studies in Europe, some members of the new Ottoman elite concluded that the secret of Europe's success rested not just with its technical achievements but also with its political organizations. Moreover, the process of reform itself had imbued a small segment of this elite with the belief that constitutional government would be a desirable check on autocracy and provide them with a better opportunity to influence policy. Sultan Abdul Aziz's chaotic rule led to his deposition in 1876 and, after a few troubled months, to the proclamation of an Ottoman constitution that the new sultan, Abdul Hamid II, pledged to uphold.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Ottoman constitution of 1876 sections
Intro  Background  European influence  Framework  Domestic and foreign reactions  Second Constitutional Era  Significance of the constitution  See also  References and notes  External links  

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