::New Zealand


Zealand::title    First::january    April::teara    March::february    Percent::journal    Ministry::island

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New Zealand
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Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Location of New Zealand within the Realm of New Zealand
Location of New Zealand within the Realm of New Zealand

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Largest city Auckland
Official languages {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Ethnic groups (2013) {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Demonym New Zealander
Kiwi (informal)
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Jerry Mateparae
 -  Prime Minister John Key
Legislature Parliament
(House of Representatives)
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Responsible government 7 May 1856 
 -  Dominion 26 September 1907 
 -  Statute of Westminster adopted 25 November 1947 
 -  De jure independence 10 December 1947 
 -  Total 268,021 km2 (75th)
103,483 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.6Unknown extension tag "ref"
 -  June 2015 estimate 4,596,700<ref name="populationestimate">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> (123rd)
 -  2013 census 4,242,048
 -  Density {{safesubst:#invoke:Decimals|main}}/km2 (205th)
{{safesubst:#invoke:Decimals|main}}/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $165.987 billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


 -  Per capita $35,966<ref name="imf2"/>
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $170.59 billion<ref name="imf2"/>
 -  Per capita $36,964<ref name="imf2"/>
Gini (2010)0.32<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


HDI (2013)Steady 0.910<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


very high · 7th
Currency New Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)
Time zone NZSTUnknown extension tag "ref" (UTC+12)
 -  Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13)
(Sep to Apr)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +64
ISO 3166 code NZ
Internet TLD .nz

New Zealand ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} new-ZEE-lənd, Māori: Aotearoa{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses – that of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu – and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long isolation, New Zealand developed a distinctive biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

Polynesians settled New Zealand in 1250–1300 CE and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Abel Tasman, a Dutch explorer, became the first European to sight New Zealand.<ref>History of New Zealand.</ref> In 1840, representatives of the British Crown and Māori Chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, making New Zealand a British colony. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.5 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, with English predominant.

New Zealand is a developed country with a market economy that is dominated by the exports of dairy products, meat and wine, along with tourism. New Zealand is a high-income economy and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, who is currently John Key. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a Governor-General. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.



brown square paper with Dutch writing and a thick red, curved line
Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of "Nova Zeelandia"

Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, supposing it was connected to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 1645 Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland.<ref name="StatenLandt">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.Unknown extension tag "ref"

Aotearoa (often translated as "land of the long white cloud"){{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm.<ref name="NZ name">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=pressrelease |type=Press release }}</ref> Note that for each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together.

New Zealand sections
Intro  History  Politics  Environment  Economy  Demography  Culture  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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