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{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}} Nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a state.<ref name="Vonk2012">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. What these rights and duties are vary from state to state.<ref name="Weis1979">Weis, Paul. Nationality and Statelessness in International Law. BRILL; 1979 [cited 19 August 2012]. ISBN 9789028603295. p. 29–61.</ref>

By custom and international conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are.<ref>Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws. The Hague, 12 April 1930. Full text. Article 1, "It is for each State to determine under its own law who are its nationals...".</ref> Such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality.

Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country. The noun national can include both citizens and non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, and full citizens are always nationals of the state.<ref name="Vonk2012" /><ref name="Kadelbach" />

In English and some other languages, the word nationality is sometimes used to refer to an ethnic group (a group of people who share a common ethnic identity, language, culture, descent, history, and so forth). This meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or passport ownership and includes nations that lack an independent state (such as the Scots, Welsh, English, Basques, Kurds, Kabyles, Tamils, Hmong, Inuit and Māori).

Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status which have ceded some power to a larger government.


Nationality sections
Intro   International law    National law   Nationality versus citizenship  Nationality versus ethnicity  Nationality versus national identity  Dual nationality  Statelessness  See also  References  Further reading  

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