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Nikāḥ al-mutʿah (Arabic: نكاح المتعة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, literally "temporary marriage"), is a type of marriage used in Twelver Shia Islam, where the duration of the marriage and the dowry must be specified and agreed upon in advance.<ref name="IslamicOrigins">Berg H. "Method and theory in the study of Islamic origins." Brill 2003 ISBN 9004126023, 9789004126022. Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.</ref><ref name="IslamDictionary">Hughes T. "A Dictionary of Islam." Asian Educational Services 1 December 1995. Accessed 15 April 2014.</ref>(p242)<ref name="Pohl (2010)">Pohl F. "Muslim world: modern muslim societies." Marshall Cavendish, 2010. ISBN 0761479279, 1780761479277 Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.</ref>(p47–53) It is a private contract made in a verbal or written format. A declaration of the intent to marry and an acceptance of the terms are required (as they are in nikah). Al-mutʿah marriage was also practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs. Zaidi Shia, Ismaeli Shia and Sunni Muslims do not practice Nikah Mutah.

Mutah is practiced under the Twelver Shia jurisprudence. The bride must not be married. She must be Muslim or belong to ahl-e-kitab (people of the book). She should be chaste and not be addicted to fornication and she should not be a young virgin (especially if her father is absent and cannot give consent).<ref>"(پايگاه اطلاع رسانى حضرت آية الله العظمى جناتى (مد ظله العالى." Jannaati website. Accessed in Arabic 15 March 2014.</ref> These conditions must be established through due diligence.

At the end of the contract, the marriage ends and the wife must undergo iddah, a period of abstinence from sexual intercourse. The iddah is intended to give certain paternity to a child should the wife become pregnant during the contract.<ref name="IslamDictionary"/><ref name="OxfordIslamDictionary"/>

Generally, the Nikah mut'ah has no proscribed minimum or maximum duration.<ref>"The four pillars of Mut'a: the time period (mudda)." Al-Islam.org website. Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref><ref>"Marriage, question 24." Alulbayt Foundation, Rulings of Grand Ayatullah Sistani. Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref><ref name=labi>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> However, one source, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, indicates the minimum duration of the marriage is debatable and durations of at least three days, three months or one year have been suggested.<ref name="OxfordIslamDictionary">Esposito J. "The Oxford dictionary of Islam." Oxford University Press 2003 p221 Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref>


Nikah mut‘ah sections
Intro   Background    Historical examples    Zaidi Shia view    Nikah mut'ah in Sunni Islam    Nikah mut'ah in Twelver Shia Islam    Misyar marriage   Scholars allowing nikah mut\u2018ah   Other views    Media Debates on Mut'ah    See also    References    Further reading   External links  

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Nikāḥ al-mutʿah (Arabic: نكاح المتعة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, literally "temporary marriage"), is a type of marriage used in Twelver Shia Islam, where the duration of the marriage and the dowry must be specified and agreed upon in advance.<ref name="IslamicOrigins">Berg H. "Method and theory in the study of Islamic origins." Brill 2003 ISBN 9004126023, 9789004126022. Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.</ref><ref name="IslamDictionary">Hughes T. "A Dictionary of Islam." Asian Educational Services 1 December 1995. Accessed 15 April 2014.</ref>(p242)<ref name="Pohl (2010)">Pohl F. "Muslim world: modern muslim societies." Marshall Cavendish, 2010. ISBN 0761479279, 1780761479277 Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.</ref>(p47–53) It is a private contract made in a verbal or written format. A declaration of the intent to marry and an acceptance of the terms are required (as they are in nikah). Al-mutʿah marriage was also practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs. Zaidi Shia, Ismaeli Shia and Sunni Muslims do not practice Nikah Mutah.

Mutah is practiced under the Twelver Shia jurisprudence. The bride must not be married. She must be Muslim or belong to ahl-e-kitab (people of the book). She should be chaste and not be addicted to fornication and she should not be a young virgin (especially if her father is absent and cannot give consent).<ref>"(پايگاه اطلاع رسانى حضرت آية الله العظمى جناتى (مد ظله العالى." Jannaati website. Accessed in Arabic 15 March 2014.</ref> These conditions must be established through due diligence.

At the end of the contract, the marriage ends and the wife must undergo iddah, a period of abstinence from sexual intercourse. The iddah is intended to give certain paternity to a child should the wife become pregnant during the contract.<ref name="IslamDictionary"/><ref name="OxfordIslamDictionary"/>

Generally, the Nikah mut'ah has no proscribed minimum or maximum duration.<ref>"The four pillars of Mut'a: the time period (mudda)." Al-Islam.org website. Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref><ref>"Marriage, question 24." Alulbayt Foundation, Rulings of Grand Ayatullah Sistani. Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref><ref name=labi>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> However, one source, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, indicates the minimum duration of the marriage is debatable and durations of at least three days, three months or one year have been suggested.<ref name="OxfordIslamDictionary">Esposito J. "The Oxford dictionary of Islam." Oxford University Press 2003 p221 Accessed 15 March 2014.</ref>


Nikah mut‘ah sections
Intro   Background    Historical examples    Zaidi Shia view    Nikah mut'ah in Sunni Islam    Nikah mut'ah in Twelver Shia Islam    Misyar marriage   Scholars allowing nikah mut\u2018ah   Other views    Media Debates on Mut'ah    See also    References    Further reading   External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Background
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