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::Muawiyah I

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Domains of the Rashidun empire under the first four caliphs. The "divided phase" relates to the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali during the First Fitna.
  Rashidun Caliphate strongholds under Ali during the First Fitna.
  Region controlled by Muawiyah I during the First Fitna.
  Region controlled by Amr ibn al-As during the First Fitna.

Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602 – April 29 or May 1, 680) established the Umayyad Dynasty of the caliphate,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>The Umayyad Dynasty at the University 0f Calgary Archived June 20, 2013 at the Wayback Machine</ref> and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.<ref>Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah 40 A.H., 661 A.D.-60 A.H., 680 A.D. (Michael G. Morony).</ref> During the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), he fought with the Muslims against the Byzantines in Syria.

To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The Caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as naval bases.<ref>A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999, Page 48 and Page 52-53</ref>


Muawiyah I sections
Intro   Early life and family    Appearance    During the time of Muhammad    Background of the Roman-Persian Wars before Islam    Muawiyah during the Rashidun Caliphate    First Fitna    Muawiyah as Caliph    Death    Aftermath    Legacy    Reversing Muawiyah's policies    Views on Muawiyah    See also    References    Sources   

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