::Michael S. Hart


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Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011)<ref name="Gutenberg_Founder">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> was an American author, best known as the inventor of the electronic book (or ebook) and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make ebooks freely available via the Internet.<ref name="Gutenberg_Founder" /><ref name="Hobbes_netTL">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Guardian">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="NYT">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> He published ebooks years before the Internet existed via the ARPANET,<ref name="Schofield_ZD">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="ComputerWorld_UK">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> and later on BBS networks<ref name="Gutenberg_1992">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> and Gopher servers.<ref name="Chronicle_HighEDU">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Hart devoted his life after founding PG in 1971 to digitizing and distributing literature from works in the public domain with free and expired copyrights. The first ebooks (etexts)<ref name="Schofield_ZD" /><ref name="News_Gazette">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> were typed in plain text format<ref name="ComputerWorld_UK" /><ref name="Gutenberg_1992" /> and published as text files; other formats were made available later. Hart typed most of the early ebooks himself; later, volunteers helped expand the project.<ref name="Schofield_ZD" /><ref name="Kahle">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Wired_1998">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Michael S. Hart sections
Intro  Early life  Project Gutenberg  Other activities  Personal life  Death   Writing style   See also  References  External links  

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