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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} {{#invoke:Side box|main}} Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (Ge'ez: ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, dagmäwi minilik Unknown extension tag "ref"), baptized as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was NegusUnknown extension tag "ref" of Shewa (1866–89), then Nəgusä NägästUnknown extension tag "ref" of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state had been completed by 1898, thus restoring the ancient Ethiopian Kingdom to its glory of the Axumite Empire which was one of the four most powerful kingdoms of the ancient world.<ref name="Zewde, Bahru 1991">Zewde, Bahru. A history of Ethiopia: 1855-1991. 2nd ed. Eastern African studies. 2001</ref> Ethiopia was transformed under Nəgusä Nägäst Menelik: the major signposts of modernization were put in place.<ref name=Teshale>Teshale Tibebu, "Ethiopia: Menelik II: Era of", Encyclopedia of African history”, Kevin Shillington (ed.), 2004.</ref> Externally, his victory over the Italian invaders had earned him great fame: following Adwa, recognition of Ethiopia’s independence by external powers was expressed in terms of diplomatic representation at the court of Menelik and delineation of Ethiopia’s boundaries with the adjacent colonies.<ref name="Zewde, Bahru 1991"/> Menelik expanded his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into Kaffa, Sidama, Wolayta and other kingdoms.<ref name="John Young 1998 192">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="International Crisis Group 2009 p. 2">International Crisis Group, "Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents". Issue 153 of ICG Africa report (4 September 2009) p. 2.</ref> He is widely called Emiye<ref>Emiye in Amharic means "My Mother" affectionately"</ref> Menelik in Ethiopia for his forgiving nature and his selfless deeds to the poor.


Menelik II sections
Intro  Biography   Succession   See also   Notes   References  [[Menelik_II?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} {{#invoke:Side box|main}} Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (Ge'ez: ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, dagmäwi minilik Unknown extension tag "ref"), baptized as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was NegusUnknown extension tag "ref" of Shewa (1866–89), then Nəgusä NägästUnknown extension tag "ref" of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state had been completed by 1898, thus restoring the ancient Ethiopian Kingdom to its glory of the Axumite Empire which was one of the four most powerful kingdoms of the ancient world.<ref name="Zewde, Bahru 1991">Zewde, Bahru. A history of Ethiopia: 1855-1991. 2nd ed. Eastern African studies. 2001</ref> Ethiopia was transformed under Nəgusä Nägäst Menelik: the major signposts of modernization were put in place.<ref name=Teshale>Teshale Tibebu, "Ethiopia: Menelik II: Era of", Encyclopedia of African history”, Kevin Shillington (ed.), 2004.</ref> Externally, his victory over the Italian invaders had earned him great fame: following Adwa, recognition of Ethiopia’s independence by external powers was expressed in terms of diplomatic representation at the court of Menelik and delineation of Ethiopia’s boundaries with the adjacent colonies.<ref name="Zewde, Bahru 1991"/> Menelik expanded his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into Kaffa, Sidama, Wolayta and other kingdoms.<ref name="John Young 1998 192">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="International Crisis Group 2009 p. 2">International Crisis Group, "Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents". Issue 153 of ICG Africa report (4 September 2009) p. 2.</ref> He is widely called Emiye<ref>Emiye in Amharic means "My Mother" affectionately"</ref> Menelik in Ethiopia for his forgiving nature and his selfless deeds to the poor.


Menelik II sections
Intro  Biography   Succession   See also   Notes   References  [[Menelik_II?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Biography
<<>>