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population_density_metro_sq_mi | population_blank1_title | population_blank1_footnotes | population_density_blank1_km2 | population_density_blank1_sq_mi | population_blank2_title | population_blank2_footnotes | population_density_blank2_km2 | population_density_blank2_sq_mi | population_note | population_demonym | demographics_type1 | demographics1_footnotes | demographics1_title1 | demographics1_info1 | demographics1_title2 | demographics1_info2 | demographics1_title3 | demographics1_info3 | demographics1_title4 | demographics1_info4 | demographics1_title5 | demographics1_info5 | demographics1_title6 | demographics1_info6 | demographics1_title7 | demographics1_info7 | demographics_type2 | demographics2_footnotes | demographics2_title1 | demographics2_info1 | demographics2_title2 | demographics2_info2 | demographics2_title3 | demographics2_info3 | demographics2_title4 | demographics2_info4 | demographics2_title5 | demographics2_info5 | demographics2_title6 | demographics2_info6 | demographics2_title7 | demographics2_info7 | timezone2 | timezone | timezone1 | utc_offset | utc_offset1 | utc_offset2 | timezone1_DST | timezone_DST | utc_offset1_DST | utc_offset_DST | timezone2_DST | utc_offset2_DST | postal_code_type | postal_code | postal2_code_type | postal2_code | area_code_type | area_code | geocode | iso_code | registration_plate | blank_name | blank_name_sec1 | blank_info | blank_info_sec1 | blank1_name | blank1_name_sec1 | blank1_info | blank1_info_sec1 | blank2_name | blank2_name_sec1 | blank2_info | blank2_info_sec1 | blank3_name | blank3_name_sec1 | blank3_info | blank3_info_sec1 | blank4_name | blank4_name_sec1 | blank4_info | blank4_info_sec1 | blank5_name | blank5_name_sec1 | blank5_info | blank5_info_sec1 | blank6_name | blank6_name_sec1 | blank6_info | blank6_info_sec1 | blank7_name | blank7_name_sec1 | blank7_info | blank7_info_sec1 | blank_name_sec2 | blank_info_sec2 | blank1_name_sec2 | blank1_info_sec2 | blank2_name_sec2 | blank2_info_sec2 | blank3_name_sec2 | blank3_info_sec2 | blank4_name_sec2 | blank4_info_sec2 | blank5_name_sec2 | blank5_info_sec2 | blank6_name_sec2 | blank6_info_sec2 | blank7_name_sec2 | blank7_info_sec2 | website | footnotes }} Harar, formerly written Harrar<ref>"Harrar" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911.</ref><ref>Other variants include Hārer and Harer.</ref> and known to its inhabitants as Gey, is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It was formerly the capital of Harergey and now the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. The city is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands, about five hundred kilometers from Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 meters. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Harar had an estimated total population of 122,000, of whom 60,000 were males and 62,000 were females.<ref>CSA 2005 National Statistics, Table B.4</ref> According to the census of 1994, on which this estimate is based, the city had a population of 76,378.

For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial centre, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and, through its ports, the outside world. Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was included in the World Heritage List in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is sometimes known in Arabic as "the City of Saints" ("Madinat al-Awilya"). According to UNESCO, it is "considered 'the fourth holy city' of Islam" with 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century and 102 shrines.<ref name="unesco1189">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

The Fath Madinat Harar records that the cleric Abadir Umar Ar-Rida and several other religious leaders settled in Harar circa 612H (1216 AD).<ref name="Uhlig">Siegbert Uhlig, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: He-N, Volume 3, (Otto Harrassowitz Verlag: 2007), pp.111 & 319.</ref> Harar was later made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad.<ref>Richard Pankhurst, History of Ethiopian Towns (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982), p. 49.</ref> The city saw a political decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period. During Abyssinian rule, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the Harari ethno-political division.

History

Harar city wall 1956

Called Gey ("the City") by its inhabitants, Harar was founded between the 7th and the 11th century (according to different sources){{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} and emerged as the center of Islamic culture and religion in the Horn of Africa.

According to the Fath Madinat Harar, an unpublished history of the city in the 13th century, the cleric Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, along with several other religious leaders, came from the Arabian Peninsula to settle in Harar circa 612H (1216 AD). Sheikh Ar-Rida is regarded as the saint of Harar,<ref name="Uhlig"/> as well as the common ancestor of the Somali Sheekhaal clan.<ref name="burton1856">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

During the Middle Ages, Harar was part of the Adal Sultanate, becoming its capital in 1520 under Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. The sixteenth century was the city's Golden Age. The local culture flourished, and many poets lived and wrote there. It also became known for coffee, weaving, basketry and bookbinding.

From Harar, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, also known as "Gurey" and "Gragn" (both meaning "the Left-handed"), launched a war of conquest in the sixteenth century that extended the polity's territory and threatened the existence of the neighboring Christian Ethiopian Empire. His successor, Emir Nur ibn Mujahid, built a protective wall around the city.<ref>Dr. Enrico Cerulli, Documenti arabi per la storia dell’Ethiopia, Memoria della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Vol. 4, No. 2, Rome, 1931</ref> Four meters in height high with five gates, this structure, called Jugol, is still intact and is a symbol of the town to the inhabitants.

Wooden balconies on the streets of Harar.

The rulers of Harar also struck its own currency, the earliest possible issues bearing a date that may be read as AH 615 (= AD 1218/19); but definitely by AD 1789 the first coins were issued, and more were issued into the nineteenth century.<ref>Richard Pankhurst, An Introduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia (London: Lalibela House, 1961), p. 267.</ref>

File:HararRoadToMarket.jpg
A scene on the road to the market in Harar, dating between 1900-1920.

Following the death of Emir Nur, Harar began a steady decline in wealth and power. A later ruler, Imam Muhammed Jasa, a kinsman of Ahmad Gragn, yielded to the pressures of increasing Oromo raids and in 1577 abandoned the city, relocating to Aussa and making his brother ruler of Harar. The new base not only failed to provide more security from the Oromos, it attracted the hostile attention of the neighboring Afars who raided caravans travelling between Harar and the coast. The Imams of Aussa declined over the next century while Harar regained its independence under `Ali ibn Da`ud, the founder of a dynasty that ruled the city from 1647 until 1875, when it was conquered by Egypt.<ref>Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp. 375-377</ref>

During the period of Egyptian rule (1875-1884), Arthur Rimbaud lived in the city as the local factor of several different commercial companies based in Aden; he returned in 1888 to resume trading in coffee, musk and skins until illness forced him to return to France. A house said to have been his residence is now a museum.<ref>Munro-Hay, Ethiopia, the unknown land: a cultural and historical guide (London: I.B. Tauris, 2002), p. 184</ref>

In 1885, Harar regained its independence, but this lasted only two years until 6 January 1887 when the Battle of Chelenqo led to Harar's incorporation into the Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia's growing Empire based in Shewa.

Harar lost some of its commercial importance with the creation of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway, initially intended to run via the city but diverted north of the mountains between Harar and the Awash River to save money. As a result of this, Dire Dawa was founded in 1902 as New Harar.

A traditional home in Harar with a niche adorned with Islamic calligraphy.

Harar was captured by Italian troops under Marshall Rudolfo Graziani during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War on 8 May 1937. The 1st battalion of the Nigeria Regiment, advancing from Jijiga by way of the Marda Pass, captured the city for the allies 29 March 1941.<ref>Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie's War (New York: Olive Branch, 2003), pp. 145, 367f</ref> Following the conclusion of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in 1944, the government of the United Kingdom were granted permission to establish a consulate in Harar, although the British refused to reciprocate by allowing an Ethiopian one at Hargeisa. After numerous reports of British activities in the Haud that violated the London Agreement of 1954, the Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs ordered the consulate closed March 1960.<ref>John Spencer, Ethiopia at Bay: A personal account of the Haile Selassie years (Algonac: Reference Publications, 1984), pp. 282-287</ref>

In 1995, the city and its environs became an Ethiopian region (or kilil) in its own right. A pipeline to carry water to the city from Dire Dawa is currently under construction.

According to Sir Richard Burton Harar is the birthplace of the khat plant.<ref name="LANGUAGE RELATIONSHIPS: FAMILIES, GRAFTS, PRISONS">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The original domesticated coffee plant is also said to have been from Harar.<ref name="Coffee: A dark history">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


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