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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} Golan, al-Golan or Gaulonitis (Hebrew: גּולן‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; Arabic: جولان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Gōlān or Jōlān; Greek: Γαυλανῖτις{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Gaulanítis) refers to an area that was shared between the Roman provinces of Palestine and Phenicia. Its main cities were Golan (Gaulan) and Galama.<ref name = "hisoma">The history and antiquities of al-Golan - International Conference, al-Bassel Center for Archeological Research and Training, 2007-2008.</ref> Archaeologists localize the city of Golan at Sahm el-Jaulān<ref name = "hisoma"/> where ruins were found from the early Byzantine era.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

After the collapse of the Seleucid Empire at the end of the 2nd century BCE, Hasmoneans, Nabateans, Itureans, Herodians and Romans fought for the control of the area.<ref name = "hisoma"/> The region was properous between the 2nd and the 7th century CE when paien communities were step by step replaced by Christian ones.<ref name = "hisoma"/>

The area is referred in the Bible as the territory of Manasseh in the Bashan. Golan was the most northerly of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan River (). Manasseh gave this Levitical city to the Gershonite Levites (; ). According to the Bible, the Israelites conquered Golan from the Amorites. The city was known to Josephus. Near Golan, Alexander Jannaeus was ambushed by Obodas, king of the Arabians, and his army. It formed the eastern boundary of Galilee and was part of the tetrarchy of Philip. It was described by Eusebius in his Onomasticon as a large village that gave its name to the surrounding country.


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