Development of the concept::Force


Force::forces    Object::first    Title::physics    Which::newton's    Motion::center    Velocity::constant

Development of the concept Philosophers in antiquity used the concept of force in the study of stationary and moving objects and simple machines, but thinkers such as Aristotle and Archimedes retained fundamental errors in understanding force. In part this was due to an incomplete understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction, and a consequently inadequate view of the nature of natural motion.<ref name="Archimedes">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion, even at a constant velocity. Most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were eventually corrected by Sir Isaac Newton; with his mathematical insight, he formulated laws of motion that were not improved-on for nearly three hundred years.<ref name=uniphysics_ch2/> By the early 20th century, Einstein developed a theory of relativity that correctly predicted the action of forces on objects with increasing momenta near the speed of light, and also provided insight into the forces produced by gravitation and inertia.

With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms. The Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational.<ref name=FeynmanVol1>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>:2–10<ref name=Kleppner />:79 High-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction.<ref name="final theory"/>

Force sections
Intro  Development of the concept  Pre-Newtonian concepts  Newtonian mechanics  Special theory of relativity  Descriptions  Fundamental forces  Non-fundamental forces  Rotations and torque  Kinematic integrals  Potential energy  Units of measurement  Force measurement  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

Development of the concept
PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Pre-Newtonian concepts