International auxiliary languages::Diminutive
- See also Esperanto word formation.
For generic use (for living beings and inanimate objects), Esperanto has a single diminutive suffix, "-et".
- domo (house) → dometo (cottage)
- knabo (boy) → knabeto (little boy)
- varma (warm) → varmeta (lukewarm)
For personal names and familial forms of address, the affixes "-nj-" and "-ĉj-" are used, for females and males respectively. Unusually for Esperanto, the "root" is often shortened.
- patrino (mother) → panjo (mum, mommy)
- patro (father) → paĉjo (dad(dy))
- Aleksandra (Alexandra) → Alenjo (Sandra)
- Aleksandro (Alexander) → Aleĉjo (Sandro)
- Johano (John) → Joĉjo (Johnny)
- Maria (Mary) → Manjo
- Sofia (Sophie) → Sonjo
- Vilhelmo (William) → Vilĉjo (Bill(y), Will(y))
Whereas languages such as Spanish may use the diminutive to denote offspring, as in "perrito" (pup), Esperanto has a dedicated and regular suffix, "-id" used for this purpose. Thus "hundeto" means "little dog" (such as a dog of a small breed), while "hundido" means a dog who is not yet fully grown.
- See also Free word-building in Interlingua.
Interlingua has a single diminutive suffix, -ett, for diminutives of all sorts.
- Johannes (John) → Johannetto (Johnny)
- camera (chamber, room) → cameretta (little room)
- pullo (chicken) → pulletto (chick)
Use of this suffix is flexible, and diminutives such as mama and papa may also be used. To denote a small person or object, many Interlingua speakers simply use the word parve, or small:
- parve can → small dog
- parve arbore → small tree
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