::Common Era


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Common Era (also Current Era<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref> or Christian Era<ref>

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</ref>), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).<ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref><ref>


</ref> BCE is the abbreviation for before the Common/Current/Christian Era (an alternative to Before Christ, abbreviated BC). The CE/BCE designation uses the year-numbering system introduced by the 6th-century Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus, who started the Anno Domini designation, intending the beginning of the life of JesusUnknown extension tag "ref" to be the reference date.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} </ref> Neither notation includes a year zero,Unknown extension tag "ref" and the two notations (CE/BCE and AD/BC) are numerically equivalent; thus "2021 CE" corresponds to "AD 2021", and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".

The expression "Common Era" can be found as early as 1708 in English,<ref name=1708CommonInEnglish/> and traced back to Latin usage among European Christians to 1615, as vulgaris aerae,<ref name=VulgarisAerae1/> and to 1635 in English as Vulgar Era.Unknown extension tag "ref" At those times, the expressions were all used interchangeably with "Christian Era". The Gregorian calendar and the year-numbering system associated with it is the calendar system with most widespread use in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union.

Use of the CE abbreviation was introduced by Jewish academics in the mid-19th century. Since the later 20th century, use of CE and BCE has been popularized in academic and scientific publications and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to emphasize secularism and/or sensitivity to non-Christians,<ref name=Irvin /><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=cst>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }} </ref> because it does not explicitly make use of religious titles for Jesus, such as "Christ" and Dominus ("Lord"), which are used in the BC/AD notation, nor does it give implicit expression to the Christian creed that Jesus was the Christ.<ref name=Irvin /><ref>Anno Domini (which means in the year of the/our Lord) Translated as "in the year of (Our) Lord" in Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 782.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Among the reasons given by those who oppose the use of Common Era notation is that it is selective, as other aspects of the Western calendar have origins in various belief systems (e.g., January is named for Janus).<ref>H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), p. 51.</ref><ref name=Steel> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} </ref> They claim that its propagation is the result of secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism and political correctness.<ref name=SBC/><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} </ref>

Common Era sections
Intro  History  Rationale  Conventions in style guides  Similar conventions in other languages  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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