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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= |name|altname|nativename|acceptance|pronunciation |states|state|region |latd|latm|latNS|longd|longm|longEW |ethnicity|speakers|speakers2|extinct|era|revived|revived-cat |date|dateprefix|ref |familycolor|fam1|fam2|fam3|fam4|fam5|fam6|fam7|fam8|fam9 |fam10|fam11|fam12|fam13|fam14|fam15|family |ancestor|ancestor2|ancestor3|ancestor4|ancestor5|protoname |creator|created|setting|posteriori |dialects|dia1|dia2|dia3|dia4|dia5|dia6|dia7|dia8|dia9|dia10 |dia11|dia12|dia13|dia14|dia15|dia16|dia17|dia18|dia19|dia20 |stand1|stand2|stand3|stand4|stand5|stand6|standards |script|sign |nation|minority|agency |iso1|iso2|iso2b|iso2t|iso3|iso2comment|iso3comment|isoexception|iso6|ietf |lc1|ld1|lc2|ld2|lc3|ld3|lc4|ld4|lc5|ld5|lc6|ld6|lc7|ld7|lc8|ld8|lc9|ld9|lc10|ld10 |lc11|ld11|lc12|ld12|lc13|ld13|lc14|ld14|lc15|ld15|lc16|ld16|lc17|ld17|lc18|ld18|lc19|ld19|lc20|ld20 |lc21|ld21|lc22|ld22|lc23|ld23|lc24|ld24|lc25|ld25|lc26|ld26|lc27|ld27|lc28|ld28|lc29|ld29|lc30|ld30 |linglist|lingname|linglist2|lingname2|linglist3|lingname3|linglist4|lingname4|linglist5|lingname5 |lingua|guthrie |aiatsis|aiatsis2|aiatsis3|aiatsis4|aiatsis5|aiatsis6 |aiatsisname|aiatsisname2|aiatsisname3|aiatsisname4|aiatsisname5|aiatsisname6 |glotto|glotto2|glotto3|glotto4|glotto5 |glottoname|glottoname2|glottoname3|glottoname4|glottoname5 |glottorefname|glottorefname2|glottorefname3|glottorefname4|glottorefname5 |glottofoot |image|imagesize|imagealt|imagecaption|imageheader |map|mapsize|mapalt|mapcaption|map2|mapalt2|mapcaption2|boxsize |notice|notice2 }}

Afrikaans ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}})<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> is one of the official languages of South Africa. It is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia, and to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular<ref>K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Moletsane, Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action, p.91</ref><ref name=Heese1971>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> of South Holland<ref>Herkomst en groei van het Afrikaans - G.G. Kloeke (1950)</ref><ref>The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects - Wilbert Heeringa, Febe de Wet (2007)</ref> spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.<ref name="coetzee">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans in its earlier days).<ref group="n">Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans was historically called Cape Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> The term is ultimately derived from Dutch "Afrikaans-Hollands" meaning "African Dutch". It is the first language of most of the Afrikaner and Coloured people of Southern Africa.

Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including Portuguese, the Bantu languages, Malay, German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is of Dutch origin.Unknown extension tag "ref" Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch.Unknown extension tag "ref" There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.Unknown extension tag "ref"

With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country.<ref name="statssa-2011-language-1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the official languages of South Africa, and is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language.Unknown extension tag "ref" It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans (3.4 million people), 60.8% of White South Africans (2.7 million) and at 4.6% the second most spoken first-language among Asian South Africans (58,000). About 1.5% of black South Africans (600,000 people) speak it as their first language.<ref name=superweb>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Large numbers of speakers of Bantu languages and English-speaking South Africans also speak it as their second language. It is taught in schools, with about 10.3 million second language learners.<ref name=e18/> One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, and several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933.<ref name=e18/>

In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is widely spoken as a second language and used as lingua franca,Unknown extension tag "ref" while as a native language it is spoken in 11% of households, mainly concentrated in the capital Windhoek and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.Unknown extension tag "ref" It is no longer considered an "official language" of Namibia, but rather a recognised regional language; in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home.<ref name=e18/>

Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans-speakers range between 15 and 23 million.<ref name="speakers" group="n">What follows are estimations. Afrikaans has 16.3 million speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has over 5 million native speakers and 15 million second language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has about 6 million native and 16 million second language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. In South Africa, over 23 million people speak Afrikaans, of which a third are first-language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref>


Afrikaans sections
Intro  History  Geographic distribution  Current status  Dialects  Grammar  Phonology  Orthography  Afrikaans phrases  Sample text  See also  Notes  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

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Afrikaans ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}})<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> is one of the official languages of South Africa. It is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia, and to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular<ref>K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Moletsane, Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action, p.91</ref><ref name=Heese1971>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> of South Holland<ref>Herkomst en groei van het Afrikaans - G.G. Kloeke (1950)</ref><ref>The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects - Wilbert Heeringa, Febe de Wet (2007)</ref> spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.<ref name="coetzee">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans in its earlier days).<ref group="n">Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans was historically called Cape Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.
Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> The term is ultimately derived from Dutch "Afrikaans-Hollands" meaning "African Dutch". It is the first language of most of the Afrikaner and Coloured people of Southern Africa.

Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including Portuguese, the Bantu languages, Malay, German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is of Dutch origin.Unknown extension tag "ref" Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch.Unknown extension tag "ref" There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.Unknown extension tag "ref"

With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country.<ref name="statssa-2011-language-1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the official languages of South Africa, and is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language.Unknown extension tag "ref" It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans (3.4 million people), 60.8% of White South Africans (2.7 million) and at 4.6% the second most spoken first-language among Asian South Africans (58,000). About 1.5% of black South Africans (600,000 people) speak it as their first language.<ref name=superweb>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Large numbers of speakers of Bantu languages and English-speaking South Africans also speak it as their second language. It is taught in schools, with about 10.3 million second language learners.<ref name=e18/> One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, and several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933.<ref name=e18/>

In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is widely spoken as a second language and used as lingua franca,Unknown extension tag "ref" while as a native language it is spoken in 11% of households, mainly concentrated in the capital Windhoek and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.Unknown extension tag "ref" It is no longer considered an "official language" of Namibia, but rather a recognised regional language; in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home.<ref name=e18/>

Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans-speakers range between 15 and 23 million.<ref name="speakers" group="n">What follows are estimations. Afrikaans has 16.3 million speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has over 5 million native speakers and 15 million second language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. Afrikaans has about 6 million native and 16 million second language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. In South Africa, over 23 million people speak Afrikaans, of which a third are first-language speakers; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref>


Afrikaans sections
Intro  History  Geographic distribution  Current status  Dialects  Grammar  Phonology  Orthography  Afrikaans phrases  Sample text  See also  Notes  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
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