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}} African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.<ref>"Black or African American" refers to a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The Black racial category includes people who marked the "Black, African Am., or Negro" checkbox. It also includes respondents who reported entries such as African American; Sub-Saharan African entries, such as Kenyan and Nigerian; and Afro-Caribbean entries, such as Haitian and Jamaican." http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-06.pdf</ref><ref>http://definitions.uslegal.com/a/african-americans/ "African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. In the United States, the terms are generally used for Americans with at least partial Sub-Saharan African ancestry."</ref> On average, African Americans are of 78 percent West African, 19 percent European and 3 percent Native American heritage, with very large variation between individuals.<ref name="Bryc2009"/> The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans.<ref name="Cldcd">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Locke">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="LewisM"/>

African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans).<ref name="tthqvu">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved blacks within the boundaries of the present United States.<ref>Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 29. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1998</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> However, immigrants from African, Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.<ref name="LewisM">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

African-American history starts in the 16th century, with Africans forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, and in the 17th century with African slaves taken to English colonies in North America. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, with four million denied freedom from bondage prior to the Civil War.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men of property could vote.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>Leland T. Saito (1998). "Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb". p. 154. University of Illinois Press</ref> These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the Civil Rights Movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected president of the United States.


African American sections
Intro  History  Demographics  Religion  Language  Genetics  Traditional names  Contemporary issues  Terminology  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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African::title    American::united    States::black    Black::first    January::census    Https::census

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} {{#invoke:Sidebar|collapsible | titlestyle = padding-bottom:0.5em; | title = African American topics | imagestyle = padding-bottom:0.7em; | image = African America | listclass = plainlist | listtitlestyle = text-align:center; | liststyle = border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;

| list1name = history | list1title = History (timeline) | list1 =

{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}}

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| list3name = religion | list3title = Religion

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| list4name = movements | list4title = Political movements

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| list5name = groups | list5title = Civic / economic groups | list5 =

| list6name = sports | list6title = Sports | list6 =

{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}}

| list7name = subdivisions | list7title = Ethnic subdivisions

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| list8name = languages | list8title = Languages | list8 =

| list9name = diaspora | list9title = Diaspora

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| list10name = lists | list10title = Lists | list10 =


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}} African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.<ref>"Black or African American" refers to a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The Black racial category includes people who marked the "Black, African Am., or Negro" checkbox. It also includes respondents who reported entries such as African American; Sub-Saharan African entries, such as Kenyan and Nigerian; and Afro-Caribbean entries, such as Haitian and Jamaican." http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-06.pdf</ref><ref>http://definitions.uslegal.com/a/african-americans/ "African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. In the United States, the terms are generally used for Americans with at least partial Sub-Saharan African ancestry."</ref> On average, African Americans are of 78 percent West African, 19 percent European and 3 percent Native American heritage, with very large variation between individuals.<ref name="Bryc2009"/> The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans.<ref name="Cldcd">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Locke">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="LewisM"/>

African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans).<ref name="tthqvu">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved blacks within the boundaries of the present United States.<ref>Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 29. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1998</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> However, immigrants from African, Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.<ref name="LewisM">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

African-American history starts in the 16th century, with Africans forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, and in the 17th century with African slaves taken to English colonies in North America. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, with four million denied freedom from bondage prior to the Civil War.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men of property could vote.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>Leland T. Saito (1998). "Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb". p. 154. University of Illinois Press</ref> These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the Civil Rights Movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected president of the United States.


African American sections
Intro  History  Demographics  Religion  Language  Genetics  Traditional names  Contemporary issues  Terminology  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
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