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Recipients::Administration of federal assistance in the United States

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Recipients A recipient of federal awards or funds is defined as any non-federal entity that receives federal assistance and which is part of, and/or located within, the United States and its territories and possessions. Recipients are grouped into six main categories, as established by the GSA:<ref name="cfda">2006 CFDA; “Introduction And How To Use This Catalog”; pg. III; Types of Assistance</ref>

  • Local governments - This category includes any county, parish, municipality, city, town, township, village, State-designated Indian tribal government, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments, sponsor group representative organizations, and other regional or interstate government entity, or any agency or instrumentality of a local government, which are located within the U.S.<ref name="cfda"/>
  • Indian Tribal governments - This category includes the governing body or a governmental agency of any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community (including any Native village) within the U.S. and its territories. These must first be certified by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior as eligible to receive assistance under special programs and services provided through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.<ref name="cfda"/>
  • Private individuals – This category includes Native Americans, homeowners, students, farmers, artists, scientists, consumers, small businesses, refugees, aliens, veterans, senior citizens, low-income persons, health and education professionals, builders, contractors, developers, handicapped persons, and the physically afflicted. Examples of direct assistance to these individuals include Section 8 vouchers, Pell Grant scholarships, and disaster relief awards, among many others.<ref name="cfda"/>

Every program is designed with a specific recipient in mind. Certain programs have restrictions on who may receive the assistance because of the nature of its activity or service.<ref name="cfda"/> Examples include infrastructure programs and grants which are usually restricted to States, local governments, and U.S. territories given that these are usually the only entities that administer public roads, bridges, etc., or health-related research grants which individuals may be eligible so long as they satisfy certain criteria, such as that they have a professional or scientific degree, 3 years of research experience, and be a citizen of the United States.<ref name="cfda2">2006 CFDA; “Introduction And How To Use This Catalog: Organization of this Catalog”; pg. IX; “Eligibility Requirements: Applicant Eligibility”</ref>

Pass-through entities and sub-recipients

The federal government allows certain entities mentioned above to act as a Pass-through entity in order to provide the federal assistance to another recipient. The Pass-through entity is still considered a recipient, but the assistance assigned to it may be “passed on” or “passed-through it” to another recipient. The entity which receives the assistance from a pass-through entity is considered a sub-recipient.<ref name="Terminology">U.S. State Department Grant Terminology</ref><ref name="Terminology2">U.S. DOJ Glossary of Terms</ref> This is allowed because certain federal programs may not have the organizational structure to provide assistance directly to the final recipient and requires support from other entities.

For example, crime-prevention federal programs may be assigned to a State Attorney General’s Office (AGO) (considered a State government). This State office may decide to assign part of its federal grant through sub-grants (also known as sub-awards)<ref name="Terminology"/> to cities and counties within the State (considered local governments) for crime-prevention activities such as neighborhood watch programs or supplying new equipment to police forces. The original recipient, the AGO, has become a Pass-through entity and the cities and counties have become “sub-recipients”, all the while the assistance is still serving the federal program’s purpose to prevent crime.

Sub-recipients may in turn pass on the assistance to another sub-recipient to serve the purpose required by the federal program, for example if the cities mentioned above pass on part of their assistance to nonprofit organizations dedicated to patrolling neighborhoods at night. Therefore, a recipient may be considered a pass-through entity and a sub-recipient at the same time.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

Certain programs may require the original recipient to pass on the assistance to sub-recipients (i.e., the federal program requires that the assistance be provided to nonprofit neighborhood watch organizations, and the assistance passes recipient through recipient until it reaches them), while others may require that the recipient not pass on the assistance (i.e., State must use the assistance entirely on its own). Some programs award assistance to a pass-through entity who is neither the direct applicant nor the ultimate beneficiary, such as the Pell Grant program where students apply and receive the aid but it is the university’s responsibility to receive and administer the applications and disburse the aid.<ref name="cfda2"/>

Pass-through entities and sub-recipients are equally responsible for the management of federal aid received. The federal government monitors the federal aid provided to any recipient and requires all pass-through entities to monitor the aid they pass on. Noncompliance of a federal regulation on the part of the sub-recipient may also be attributed to the pass-through entity because it is still responsible for the funds it passed on.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}


Administration of federal assistance in the United States sections
Intro  Definition  Federal assistance programs  Recipients  Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance  Monitoring activities  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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