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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; from Turkish: yoğurt{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tang.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Worldwide, cow's milk, the protein of which is mainly casein, is most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks, however, is also used to produce yogurt in various parts of the world.

Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of microorganisms.<ref>Swiss Food Law: Article 56, Yogurt, section 2: "The final product must contain a total of at least 10 million colony forming units of microorganisms under paragraph 1 or 1.2 per gram."{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}</ref>

In Western culture, the milk is first heated to about 85 °C (185 °F) to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. In some places, such as parts of India and Bangladesh, curds are a desired component and milk is boiled. After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C (113 °F).<ref>[1]. Retrieved 11 June 2015.</ref> The bacterial culture is added, and the temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.


Yogurt sections
Intro  Etymology and spelling  History  Nutritional value  Varieties and presentation  Plant-milk yogurt  Making yogurt at home  See also  References  External links  

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