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Etymology::Year

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Etymology

West Saxon ġēar (jɛar), Anglian ġēr continues Proto-Germanic *jǣran (*jē₁ran). Cognates are German Jahr, Old High German jār, Old Norse ár and Gothic jer (Gothic e is always a long vowel), all from a PIE *yeh₁rom "year, season". Cognates outside of Germanic are Avestan yārǝ "year", Greek ὥρα{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} "year, season, period of time" (whence "hour"), Old Church Slavonic jarŭ and Latin hornus "of this year".

Latin annus (a 2nd declension masculine noun; annum is the accusative singular; annī is genitive singular and nominative plural; annō the dative and ablative singular) is from a PIE noun *h₂et-no-, which also yielded Gothic aþn "year" (only the dative plural aþnam is attested).

Both *yeh₁-ro- and *h₂et-no- are based on verbal roots expressing movement, *h₁ey- and *h₂et- respectively, both meaning "to go" generally (compare Vedic Sanskrit éti "goes", atasi "thou goest, wanderest").

The Greek word for "year", ἔτος{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, is cognate with Latin vetus "old", from PIE *wetos- "year", also preserved in this meaning in Sanskrit vat-sa- "yearling (calf)" and vat-sa-ras "year".

Derived from Latin annus are a number of English words, such as annual, annuity, anniversary, etc.; per annum means "each year", anno Domini means "in the year of the Lord".


Year sections
Intro  Etymology   Civil year    \"Greater\" astronomical years    Seasonal year    Symbols   See also  References  Further reading  External links  

Etymology
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