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Formal and informal workforce::Workforce

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Labour::women    Informal::women    World::spend    Sector::hours    Penguin::informal    Atlas::force

Formal and informal workforce Formal labour is any sort of employment that is structured and paid in a formal way.<ref name="autogenerated1">Seager, Joni. 2008. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. 4th ed. New York: Penguin Books. Part 5</ref> Unlike the informal sector of the economy, formal labour within a country contributes to that country’s gross national product.<ref>Informal sector</ref> Informal labour is labour that falls short of being a formal arrangement in law or in practice.<ref>Larsson, Allan. “Empowerment of the Poor in Informal Employment.” Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (Jan. 2006): 1-10. Print</ref> It can be paid or unpaid and it is always unstructured and unregulated.<ref name="autogenerated2">Seager, Joni. 2008. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. 4th ed. New York: Penguin Books. Part 5.</ref> Formal employment is more reliable than informal employment. Generally, the former yields higher income and greater benefits and securities for both men and women.<ref name="autogenerated36">Chen, Martha, Joann Vanek, Francie Lund, James Heintz with Renana Jhabvala, and Christine Bonner. 2005. “Employment, Gender, and Poverty,” in Progress of the World’s Women, pp. 36–57. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women</ref>

Informal labour in the world

The contribution of informal labourers is immense. Informal labour is expanding globally, most significantly in developing countries.<ref>Chen, Martha Alter. “Women in the Informal Sector: A Global Picture, The Global Movement.” World Bank: 1-10. World Bank Info. Web. 5 Apr. 2011. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/76309/dc2002/proceedings/pdfpaper/module6mc.pdf</ref> According to a study done by Jacques Charmes, in the year 2000 informal labour made up 57% of non-agricultural employment, 40% of urban employment, and 83% of the new jobs in Latin America. That same year, informal labour made up 78% of non-agricultural employment, 61% of urban employment, and 93% of the new jobs in Africa.<ref>Charmes, Jacques. “Informal Sector, Poverty and Gender: A Review of Empirical Evidence.” World Development Report (Feb. 2000): 1-9. Centre of Economics and Ethics. Web. 5 Apr. 2011.http://www.wiego.org/papers/charmes3.pdf.</ref> Particularly after an economic crisis, labourers tend to shift from the formal sector to the informal sector. This trend was seen after the Asian economic crisis which began in 1997.<ref name="worldbank1">Chen, Martha Alter. “Women in the Informal Sector: A Global Picture, The Global Movement.” World Bank: 1-10. World Bank Info. Web. 5 Apr. 2011. <http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/76309/dc2002/proceedings/pdfpaper/module6mc.pdf></ref>

Informal labour and gender

Gender is frequently associated with informal labour. Women are employed more often informally than they are formally, and informal labour is an overall larger source of employment for females than it is for males.<ref name="autogenerated36"/> Women frequent the informal sector of the economy through occupations like home-based workers and street vendors.<ref name="worldbank1"/> The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World shows that in the 1990s, 81% of women in Benin were street vendors, 55% in Guatemala, 44% in Mexico, 33% in Kenya, and 14% in India. Overall, 60% of women workers in the developing world are employed in the informal sector.<ref name="autogenerated1"/>

The specific percentages are 84% and 58% for women in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America respectively.<ref name="autogenerated1"/> The percentages for men in both of these areas of the world are lower, amounting to 63% and 48% respectively.<ref name="autogenerated1"/> In Asia, 65% of women workers and 65% of men workers are employed in the informal sector.<ref name="autogenerated4">Seager, Joni. 2008. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. 4th ed. New York: Penguin Books. Part 5</ref> Globally, a large percentage of women that are formally employed also work in the informal sector behind the scenes. These women make up the hidden work force.<ref name="autogenerated4"/>


Workforce sections
Intro  Formal and informal workforce  Agricultural and non-agricultural labour  Paid and unpaid workforce  See also  References  External links  

Formal and informal workforce
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