Actions

::Weimar Republic

::concepts

Germany::german    Weimar::hitler    Republic::title    First::party    Which::their    Deputy::location

{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" Deutsches Reich ="3" style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center; font-size:95%;" Anthem
Das Lied der Deutschen
(English: "Song of the Germans")
="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
Germany in 1930

- class="mergedtoprow"

="3" style="text-align:center; padding:0.6em 0em;"
German states during the Weimar Republic period
</small>

="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Berlin


="2" Languages German

="2" Religion

Majority:
Protestant (Lutheran and Reformed)
="2" President || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1919–1925 Friedrich Ebert - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1925–1933 Paul von Hindenburg - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" ="2" Chancellor - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1919 (first)Philipp Scheidemann - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1933 (last) - class="mergedtoprow" ="2" LegislatureReichstag - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" State Council Reichsrat ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Government by decree begins ="vertical-align: bottom;"29 March 1930<ref name="ThomasAdam"/> ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Hitler appointed Chancellor ="vertical-align: bottom;"30 January 1933 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Reichstag fire ="vertical-align: bottom;"27 February 1933 ="3" Area - class="mergedbottomrow" style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1925<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation ="3" Population ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1925<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation ="2" Currency {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}} ="2" Today part of {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}} ="3" The coat of arms shown above is the version used after 1928, which replaced that shown in the "Flag and coat of arms" section.<ref>Cf. Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 vols., completely revis. ed., Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 151928–1935, vol. 4 (1929): "Vierter Band Chi–Dob", article: 'Deutsches Reich', pp. 611–704, here pp. 648 and 651. No ISBN.</ref>
German Reich

1919–1933

- class="mergedtoprow" ="3" class="maptable" { style="width:100%; text-align:center; margin:0 auto; background:none;" - ="text-align:center;border:0; vertical-align:middle;" [[File:Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg|125px|alt=|Flag]] ="text-align:center;border:0; vertical-align:middle;" - style="font-size:95%;" style="border:0; text-align:center;" Flag style="border:0; text-align:center;" Coat of arms
(1928-35)
}

Government semi-presidential representative
federal republic (1919–30)
De facto authoritarian state
by emergency decree (1930–33)
Adolf Hitler

- class="mergedbottomrow"

- class="mergedbottomrow"

- class="mergedbottomrow"

- class="mergedbottomrow"

Historical era Interwar period
 •  Established 11 August 1919
 •  Enabling Act 23 March 1933
CitationClass=web

}}</ref>

     468,787 km² (181,000 sq mi)
  - class="mergedbottomrow"
  
  - class="mergedbottomrow"
  
  - class="mergedbottomrow"
  
  - class="mergedbottomrow"
CitationClass=web

}}</ref> est.

  62,411,000 
 - class="mergedbottomrow"
 ="2" {{#invoke:String|rep| |5}}Density
   ="white-space:nowrap;" 133.1 /km²  (344.8 /sq mi)

The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk]) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire. It is named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place, although the official name of the state was German Reich (Deutsches Reich), continuing the name from the pre-1918 Imperial period.

The republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, and adopted on 11 August. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremists (with paramilitaries – both left and right wing) and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. However, the Weimar Republic successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies and the railway system and eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan.<ref>Marks, Sally, The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933, St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.</ref> While the Western borders of the Weimar Republic were accepted by Germany under the influence of Gustav Stresemann as German foreign minister in the Locarno Treaties, the Eastern border remained debatable for the Weimar German governments.

In 1930, President Hindenburg assumed emergency powers to back the administrations of Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher. Between 1930 and 1933 the Great Depression, worsened by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment.<ref>Buttner, Ursula Weimar: die überforderte Republik, Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424</ref> This led in 1933 to the appointment by Hindenburg of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of a coalition government – out of 10 other cabinet seats besides Hitler's, there were only two others held by Nazis: Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior) and Hermann Göring (Minister without portfolio) – von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. The Reichstag Fire Decree, signed by Hindenburg less than a month later, declared a state of emergency – the presumed start of a Communist revolution – and wiped out Constitutional civil liberties at a stroke. This, combined with the passage by the legislature in March of the Enabling Act of 1933, allowed the Chancellor – Hitler – to govern by decree without the involvement of the legislature. These two events were commonly known by the Nazi Party as the Machtergreifung ("seizure of power"), and brought the Weimar Republic to an end. The constitution became irrelevant, a democratically elected legislature was disbanded, and a single-party state was created. The end of the Weimar Republic marked the beginning of Nazi Germany.


Weimar Republic sections
Intro  Name  Armed forces  History  Aftermath  Reasons for the Republic's failure  Constituent states  See also   References   Further reading   External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Name
<<>>