::Water vapor


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Water vapor (H2O)
St Johns Fog.jpg
Invisible water vapor condenses to form
visible clouds of liquid water droplets
Liquid state water
Solid state ice
Properties<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes | harvard_core }}</ref>
Molecular formula H2O
Molar mass 18.01528(33) g/mol
Melting point convert}}<ref name="VSMOW">Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW), used for calibration, melts at 273.1500089(10) K (0.000089(10) °C, and boils at 373.1339 [Kelvin|K} (99.9839 °C)</ref>
Boiling point convert}}<ref name="VSMOW" />
specific gas constant 461.5 J/(kg·K)
Heat of vaporization 2.27 MJ/kg
Heat capacity at 300 K 1.864 kJ/(kg·K)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation CitationClass=web


Water vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor, is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation. It is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds.

Being a component of Earth's hydrosphere and hydrologic cycle, it is particularly abundant in Earth's atmosphere where it is also a potent greenhouse gas along with other gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Use of water vapor, as steam, has been important to humans for cooking and as a major component in energy production and transport systems since the industrial revolution.

Water vapor is a relatively common atmospheric constituent, present even in the solar atmosphere as well as every planet in the Solar System and many astronomical objects including natural satellites, comets and even large asteroids. Likewise the detection of extrasolar water vapor would indicate a similar distribution in other planetary systems. Water vapor is significant in that it can be indirect evidence supporting the presence of extraterrestrial liquid water in the case of some planetary mass objects.

Water vapor sections
Intro   Properties   [[Water_vapor?section=_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}_In_Earth's_atmosphere_| {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} In Earth's atmosphere ]]   In the Solar System   See also   References   External links  

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