::Viking Age


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The Viking Age is the period A.D. 793–1066 in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.<ref>Forte, p. 2</ref> It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest. In this period, the Norsemen also settled in Norse Greenland, Newfoundland, and present-day Faroe Islands, Iceland, Normandy, Scotland, England, Ukraine, Ireland, Russia and Anatolia. Though Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders, many historical documents suggest that their invasion of other countries was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionaries, and perhaps by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south.<ref name="Rudolf Simek 2005, p. 24-25">Simek, Rudolf (2005) "the emergence of the viking age: circumstances and conditions", "The vikings first Europeans VIII — XI century — the new discoveries of archaeology", other, pp. 24–25</ref><ref name="Bruno Dumézil 2005">Bruno Dumézil, master of Conference at Paris X-Nanterre, Normalien, aggregated history, author of conversion and freedom in the barbarian kingdoms. 5th – 8th centuries (Fayard, 2005)</ref><ref name = "annals R.20">"Franques Royal Annals" cited in Sawyer, Peter (2001) The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. ISBN 0-19-285434-8. p. 20</ref><ref name="Decaux 1981 pp. 184">Decaux, Alain and Castelot, André (1981) Dictionnaire d'histoire de France. Perrin. ISBN 2-7242-3080-9. pp. 184–185</ref><ref name="Boyer, R. 2008 p. 96">Boyer, R. (2008) Les Vikings: histoire, mythes, dictionnaire. R. Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-10631-0. p. 96</ref> or motivated by overpopulation, trade inequities, and the lack of viable farmland in their homeland. Information about the Viking Age is drawn largely from what was written about the Vikings by their enemies, and primary sources of archaeology, supplied with secondary sources like the Icelandic Sagas.

Viking Age sections
Intro  Historical considerations  Historical background  Probable causes of Norse expansion  Historic overview  Geography  Northwestern Europe  Southern and eastern Europe  Central Europe  Western Europe  North America  Old Norse influence on the English language  Technology  Religion  Trade centres  Settlements outside Scandinavia  Notes  Cited sources  Further reading  External links  

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