::V2 word order


Clause::clauses    Position::finite    Embedded::order    English::verb'''    Which::colspan    Subject::small

In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order is a specific restriction on the placement of the finite verb within a given sentence or clause. The V2 principle requires that the finite verb (the verb which is inflected for person) appear in second position of a declarative main clause or the given clause, whereby the first position is occupied by a single major constituent which functions as the clause topic.<ref>For discussions of the V2 principle, see Borsley (1996:220f.), Ouhalla (1994:284ff.), Fromkin et al. (2000:341ff.), Adger (2003:329ff.), Carnie (2007:281f.).</ref>

V2 word order is common across the Germanic languages and is also found in Indo-Aryan Kashmiri, Northeast Caucasian Ingush, Uto-Aztecan O'odham and fragmentarily in Rhaeto-Romansh Sursilvan. Among members of the Germanic family, English – which has predominantly SVO instead of V2 order – is an exception (although certain vestiges of the V2 phenomenon can also be found in English). Germanic languages and Kashmiri differ with respect to word order in embedded clauses. The majority of Germanic languages generally disallow the V2 principle in embedded clauses, except in a certain semantic type of clause with certain verbs. Thus German, Dutch and Afrikaans revert to VF (verb final) word order in embedded clauses. Two Germanic languages, Yiddish and Icelandic, allow V2 in all clauses, main and embedded. Kashmiri has V2 in 'declarative content clauses' but has VF order in relative clauses.

V2 word order sections
Intro  Examples  Non-finite verbs and embedded clauses  V2 in English  V2 in Old French  Structural analysis  Kashmiri  Kotgarhi and Kochi  Ingush  O'odham  Sursilvan  Notes  Literature  

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