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{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" الخلافة الأموية {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
Al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawiyyah {{#invoke:Error|error|Invalid language code.|tag=}} ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
The Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent.


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Damascus
(661–744)
Harran
(744–750)

="2" Capital-in-exile Córdoba
(756–1031)

="2" Languages Arabic (official) – Coptic, Greek, Persian (official in certain regions until the reign of Abd al-Malik) – Aramaic, Armenian, Berber language, African Romance, Georgian, Turkic, Kurdish, Prakrit

="2" Religion Sunni Islam

="2" Caliph || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 661–680 Muawiya I - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"744–750 Marwan II - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="3" Area - class="mergedbottomrow" style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 750 CE (132 AH) 15,000,000 km² (5,791,532 sq mi) - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="3" Population ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 750 CE (132 AH) est. 34,000,000  - class="mergedbottomrow" ="2" CurrencyGold dinar and dirham ="2" Today part of





<ref>The Peoples, Sekene Mody Cissoko, History of Humanity:From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, Vol. IV, ed. M.A. Al-Bakhit, L. Bazin and S.M. Cissoko, (UNESCO, 2008), 1190.[1]</ref>


<ref>Jonathan Miran, Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa, (Indiana University Press, 2009), 100.[2]</ref>


(UK)
<ref>Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, (SUNY Press, 1994), 286.[3]</ref><ref>Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, 147.[4]</ref>











<ref>Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 85.[5]</ref>


Palestinian Authority




<ref>Islam in Somali History:Fact and Fiction, Mohamed Haji Muktar, The Invention of Somalia, ed. Ali Jimale Ahmed, (The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1995), 3.[6]</ref>









Umayyad Caliphate

 

 

 

661–750
 

- class="mergedtoprow" ="3" class="maptable" style="text-align:center"
Flag<ref> "The Umayyads ruled for 90 years, taking white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning." Abdul Hadi, Evolution of the Arab Flag, 1986. "With its white flag, the Chinese Tang Dynasty referred to it [the Umayyad Dynasty] in historical literature as ' Baiyi Dashi,' the 'White Garment Calips.'" Li Qingxin, Maritime Silk Road, trans. W. W. Wang (2006), p. 47. </ref>

Government Caliphate
History
 •  Muawiya becomes Caliph estimated from 660 to 665
 •  Defeat and death of Marwan II by the Abbasids 750

The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: الأمويون‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بنو أمية{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661 CE/41 AH. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 15 million km2 (5.79 million square miles), making it the largest empire (in terms of area - not in terms of population) the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist.<ref name=Blankinship>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims. The Christian and Jewish population had still autonomy; their judicial matters were dealt with in accordance with their own laws and by their own religious heads or their appointees, although they did pay a poll tax for policing to the central state.<ref name="ReferenceA">A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 128</ref> Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that abrahamic religious groups (still a majority in times of the Umayyad Caliphate), should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. The welfare state of both the Muslim and the non-Muslim poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had also continued.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Muawiya's wife Maysum (Yazid's mother) was also a Christian. The relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time. The Umayyads were involved in frequent battles with the Christian Byzantines without being concerned with protecting themselves in Syria, which had remained largely Christian like many other parts of the empire.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy also boosted Muawiya's popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.<ref>Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa By Ali Aldosari Page 185 [7]</ref><ref>The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States By Michael Haag Chapter 3 Palestine under the Umayyads and the Arab Tribe [8]</ref>

The rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of 680–692 CE and the Berber Revolt of 740–743 CE. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. As the constant campaigning exhausted the resources and manpower of the state, the Umayyads, weakened by the Third Muslim Civil War of 744–747 CE, were finally toppled by the Abbasid Revolution in 750 CE/132 AH. A branch of the family fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031 before falling due to the Fitna of al-Ándalus.


Umayyad Caliphate sections
Intro  Origins  History  Umayyad Administration  Social Organization  Legacy  Early literature  List of Umayyad Caliphs  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Origins
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Umayyad::books    Muhammad::muawiyah    Umayyads::muslim    Marwan::history    Islam::syria    First::their

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" الخلافة الأموية {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
Al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawiyyah {{#invoke:Error|error|Invalid language code.|tag=}} ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
The Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent.


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Damascus
(661–744)
Harran
(744–750)

="2" Capital-in-exile Córdoba
(756–1031)

="2" Languages Arabic (official) – Coptic, Greek, Persian (official in certain regions until the reign of Abd al-Malik) – Aramaic, Armenian, Berber language, African Romance, Georgian, Turkic, Kurdish, Prakrit

="2" Religion Sunni Islam

="2" Caliph || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 661–680 Muawiya I - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"744–750 Marwan II - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="3" Area - class="mergedbottomrow" style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 750 CE (132 AH) 15,000,000 km² (5,791,532 sq mi) - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="3" Population ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 750 CE (132 AH) est. 34,000,000  - class="mergedbottomrow" ="2" CurrencyGold dinar and dirham ="2" Today part of





<ref>The Peoples, Sekene Mody Cissoko, History of Humanity:From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, Vol. IV, ed. M.A. Al-Bakhit, L. Bazin and S.M. Cissoko, (UNESCO, 2008), 1190.[1]</ref>


<ref>Jonathan Miran, Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa, (Indiana University Press, 2009), 100.[2]</ref>


(UK)
<ref>Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, (SUNY Press, 1994), 286.[3]</ref><ref>Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, 147.[4]</ref>











<ref>Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 85.[5]</ref>


Palestinian Authority




<ref>Islam in Somali History:Fact and Fiction, Mohamed Haji Muktar, The Invention of Somalia, ed. Ali Jimale Ahmed, (The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1995), 3.[6]</ref>









Umayyad Caliphate

 

 

 

661–750
 

- class="mergedtoprow" ="3" class="maptable" style="text-align:center"
Flag<ref> "The Umayyads ruled for 90 years, taking white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning." Abdul Hadi, Evolution of the Arab Flag, 1986. "With its white flag, the Chinese Tang Dynasty referred to it [the Umayyad Dynasty] in historical literature as ' Baiyi Dashi,' the 'White Garment Calips.'" Li Qingxin, Maritime Silk Road, trans. W. W. Wang (2006), p. 47. </ref>

Government Caliphate
History
 •  Muawiya becomes Caliph estimated from 660 to 665
 •  Defeat and death of Marwan II by the Abbasids 750

The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: الأمويون‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بنو أمية{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661 CE/41 AH. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 15 million km2 (5.79 million square miles), making it the largest empire (in terms of area - not in terms of population) the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist.<ref name=Blankinship>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims. The Christian and Jewish population had still autonomy; their judicial matters were dealt with in accordance with their own laws and by their own religious heads or their appointees, although they did pay a poll tax for policing to the central state.<ref name="ReferenceA">A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 128</ref> Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that abrahamic religious groups (still a majority in times of the Umayyad Caliphate), should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. The welfare state of both the Muslim and the non-Muslim poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had also continued.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Muawiya's wife Maysum (Yazid's mother) was also a Christian. The relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time. The Umayyads were involved in frequent battles with the Christian Byzantines without being concerned with protecting themselves in Syria, which had remained largely Christian like many other parts of the empire.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy also boosted Muawiya's popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.<ref>Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa By Ali Aldosari Page 185 [7]</ref><ref>The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States By Michael Haag Chapter 3 Palestine under the Umayyads and the Arab Tribe [8]</ref>

The rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of 680–692 CE and the Berber Revolt of 740–743 CE. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. As the constant campaigning exhausted the resources and manpower of the state, the Umayyads, weakened by the Third Muslim Civil War of 744–747 CE, were finally toppled by the Abbasid Revolution in 750 CE/132 AH. A branch of the family fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031 before falling due to the Fitna of al-Ándalus.


Umayyad Caliphate sections
Intro  Origins  History  Umayyad Administration  Social Organization  Legacy  Early literature  List of Umayyad Caliphs  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Origins
<<>>