::UKUSA Agreement


Title::united    Security::canada    First::ukusa    Guardian::category    States::december    Flagicon::world

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UKUSA Community
Map of UKUSA Community countries

New Zealand
United Kingdom
United States

The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} ew-koo-SAH)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=pressrelease |type=Press release }}</ref><ref>Also known as the Quadripartite Agreement or Quadripartite Pact ({{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }})</ref> is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The alliance of intelligence operations is also known as Five Eyes.<ref name="fiveeyes1"/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In classification markings this is abbreviated as FVEY, with the individual countries being abbreviated as GBR, USA, CAN, AUS, and NZL respectively.<ref>Top Level Telecommunications, Five Eyes, 9-Eyes and many more, 15 November 2013</ref>

Emerging from an informal agreement related to the 1941 Atlantic Charter, the secret treaty was renewed with the passage of the 1943 BRUSA Agreement, before being officially enacted on 5 March 1946 by the United Kingdom and the United States. In the following years, it was extended to encompass Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Other countries, known as "third parties", such as West Germany, the Philippines and several Nordic countries also joined the UKUSA community.<ref name="Guardian 2010"/><ref name="Gallagher 2014-06-18">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Much of the sharing of information is performed via the ultra-sensitive STONEGHOST network, which has been claimed to contain "some of the Western world's most closely guarded secrets".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Besides laying down rules for intelligence sharing, the agreement formalized and cemented the "Special Relationship" between the UK and the USA.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="timecoldwar"/>

Due to its status as a secret treaty, its existence was not known to the Prime Minister of Australia until 1973,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and it was not disclosed to the public until 2005.<ref name="timecoldwar"/> On 25 June 2010, for the first time in history, the full text of the agreement was publicly released by Britain and the United States, and can now be viewed online.<ref name="Guardian 2010"/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Shortly after its release, the seven-page UKUSA Agreement was recognized by Time magazine as one of the Cold War's most important documents, with immense historical significance.<ref name="timecoldwar">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Currently, the global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden has shown that the intelligence-sharing activities between the First World allies of the Cold War are rapidly shifting into the digital realm of the Internet.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

UKUSA Agreement sections
Intro  History   Security and intelligence agencies   Global coverage  Controversy   List of global surveillance programs    Gallery   See also  References  Further reading   External links   

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