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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.<ref>The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Namit Bhatia, ed., 1992, pp. 1,051–54.</ref> Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature; there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.<ref>J.M. Cohen, "Translation", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, vol. 27, p. 12.</ref>

Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated.<ref>Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 84-87.</ref>

Due to the demands of business documentation consequent to the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-18th century, some translation specialties have become formalized, with dedicated schools and professional associations.<ref>Andrew Wilson, Translators on Translating: Inside the Invisible Art, Vancouver, CCSP Press, 2009.</ref>

Because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation (machine translation) or to mechanically aid the human translator (computer-assisted translation).<ref>W.J. Hutchins, Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2000.</ref> The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated language localization.<ref>M. Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies: New Paradigms or Shifting Viewpoints?, Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 2006, p. 133.</ref>

Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation.<ref>Susan Bassnett, Translation studies, pp. 13-37.</ref>


Translation sections
Intro  Etymology  Theories   Translators   Machine translation  Literary translation  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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