Tragedy::greek    First::which    Title::citation    Tragedy::tragic    Theatre::drama    Poetics::roman

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} Tragedy (from the Greek: τραγῳδία{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, tragōidiaUnknown extension tag "ref") is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, and Joshua Oppenheimer's incorporation of tragic pathos in his nonfiction film, The Act of Killing, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Freud, Benjamin,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Camus, Lacan, and Deleuze{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}—have analysed, speculated upon, and criticised the tragic form.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics (335 BCE), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic and lyric) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy). In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialization from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects (non-Aristotelian drama and Theatre of the Oppressed respectively) against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

Tragedy sections
Intro   Origin   Greek tragedy  Renaissance tragedy  Neo-classical tragedy  Bourgeois tragedy  Modern development  Theories of tragedy  Similar dramatic forms in world theatre  See also  Notes  References  Sources  External links