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Infrastructure

Health and medicine

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Toronto is home to 20 public hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, St. Joseph's Health Centre, Rouge Valley Health System, The Scarborough Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, as well as the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.

In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average ER wait times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment.<ref name="Study sheds light on ER wait times in Ontario">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms. 50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room.<ref name="Study sheds light on ER wait times in Ontario"/> The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours.<ref name="Study sheds light on ER wait times in Ontario"/> The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds.<ref name="Study sheds light on ER wait times in Ontario"/>

Toronto's Discovery District<ref name=district>Toronto Discovery District FAQ, Toronto Discovery District (2006). Retrieved December 5, 2006.</ref> is a centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core. It is also home to the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),<ref name=mars>Medical and Related Sciences Centre, Medical and Related Sciences Centre (2006). Retrieved December 5, 2006.</ref> which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).<ref name=mole>McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM), McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (2006). Retrieved December 5, 2006.</ref>

Toronto also has some specialized hospitals located outside of the downtown core. These hospitals include Baycrest for geriatric care and Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities.

Toronto is also host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and Canadian residents. Organizations include The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all situated in the same office at Yonge and Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada and many others. The organizations work to help people within the GTA, Ontario or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. As well, most engage in fundraising to promote research, services and public awareness.

Transportation

A GO Train along the Lakeshore West line at Sunnyside in Toronto
Toronto Union Station serves over 250,000 passengers a day

{{#invoke:main|main}} Toronto's transport forms the hub of the road, rail and air networks in the Greater Toronto Area and much of southern Ontario. There are many forms of transport in the city of Toronto, including highways and public transit. Toronto also has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths.

Public transportation

{{#invoke:main|main}} Toronto's main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).<ref name="autogenerated1"/> The backbone of its public transport network is the Toronto rapid transit system, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines and a mainly elevated light-metro rapid transit line that runs in Scarborough. The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars. There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway (line 1) extension north of Downsview Station to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre. By November 2011, construction on the Eglinton Crosstown LRT (line 5) began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish by 2020.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund the Finch West LRT (line 7) which is to be completed by 2021.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The Government of Ontario also operates an interregional rail and bus transit system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday (2013) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station.<ref name="GO Numbers">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> GO Transit is implementing RER (Regional Express Rail) into their system.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Airports

Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service is also offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto/Downsview Airport, near the city's north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory.

There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America,<ref name="fhwa">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=report }}</ref> and one of the busiest highways in the world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The main municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. The Greater Toronto Area suffers from chronic traffic congestion problems, and Toronto has the second worst traffic congestion in Canada after Vancouver.<ref>[1] Archived April 24, 2013 at the Wayback Machine</ref>

Road system

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} apart (with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they were originally separate townships). Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north-south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angled north of Eglinton Avenue. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines.

Toronto's grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north.


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