::Tetanus

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Tetanus::tetanus    First::journal    Title::pages    Vaccine::issue    Volume::disease    Muscle::cases

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms. In the most common type the spasms begin in the jaw and then progress to the rest of the body. These spasms usually last a few minutes each time and occur frequently for three to four weeks.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/> Spasms may be so severe that bone fractures may occur.<ref name=CDC2013S/> Other symptoms may include fever, sweating, headache, trouble swallowing, high blood pressure, and a fast heart rate.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/><ref name=CDC2013S>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Onset of symptoms is typically three to twenty-one days following infection. It may take months to recover. About 10% of those infected die.<ref name=CDC2012Pink>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani,<ref name=CDC2012Pink/> which is commonly found in soil, dust and manure.<ref name=CDC2013C>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The bacteria generally enter through a break in the skin such as a cut or puncture wound by a contaminated object.<ref name=CDC2013C/> They produce toxins that interfere with muscle contractions, resulting in the typical symptoms.<ref name=CDC2013Doc>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Diagnosis is based on the presenting signs and symptoms. The disease does not spread between people.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/>

Infection can be prevented by proper immunization with the tetanus vaccine. In those who have a significant wound and less than three doses of the vaccine both immunization and tetanus immune globulin are recommended. In those who are infected tetanus immune globulin or if not available intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used. The wound should be cleaned and any dead tissue removed.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/> Muscle relaxants may be used to control spasms. Mechanical ventilation may be required if a person's breathing is affected.<ref name=CDC2013Doc/>

Tetanus occurs in all parts of the world but is most frequent in hot and wet climates where the soil contains a lot of organic matter.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/> In 2013 it caused about 59,000 deaths – down from 356,000 in 1990.<ref name=GBD2014>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Description of the disease by Hippocrates exists from at least as far back as the 5th century BCE. The cause of the disease was determined in 1884 by Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone at the University of Turin with a vaccine being developed in 1924.<ref name=CDC2012Pink/>


Tetanus sections
Intro   Signs and symptoms    Cause    Pathophysiology   Diagnosis   Prevention   Treatment   Epidemiology   History  See also   References    External links   

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