::Teenage pregnancy


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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20 at the time that the pregnancy ends. A pregnancy can take place after the start of the puberty before first menstrual period, but usually occurs after the onset of periods. In well-nourished girls, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12 or 13.

Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as other women. There are, however, additional medical concerns for mothers aged under 15.<ref name=savethechildren>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> For mothers aged 15–19, risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age.<ref name=makinson>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Risks of low birth weight, premature labor, anemia, and pre-eclampsia are connected to the biological age itself, as it was observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors (such as utilization of antenatal care etc.).<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Every day in developing countries, 20,000 girls under age 18 give birth.<ref></ref> This amounts to 7.3 million births a year.<ref></ref> And if all pregnancies are included, the number of adolescent pregnancies is much higher.

In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are often associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures.<ref name=""></ref> By contrast, teenage parents in developing countries are often married, and their pregnancies welcomed by family and society. However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical problems.

Teenage pregnancies appear to be preventable by comprehensive sex education and access to birth control.<ref name=Cochrane2009>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Abstinence-only sex education does not appear to be effective.<ref name=Obs07>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Teenage pregnancy sections
Intro  Definition  Effects  Causes  Prevention  Prevalence  Teenage fatherhood  History  Society and culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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