Music::techno    Detroit::techno    Sound::first    Title::dance    Sicko::atkins    Music::house

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{". Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.<ref>According to Butler (2006:33) use of the term EDM "has become increasingly common among fans in recent years. During the 1980s, the most common catchall term for EDM was house music, while techno became more prevalent during the first half of the 1990s. As EDM has become more diverse, however, these terms have come to refer to specific genres. Another word, electronica, has been widely used in mainstream journalism since 1997, but most fans view this term with suspicion as a marketing label devised by the music industry".</ref> The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988.<ref name=BREW354>Brewster 2006:354</ref><ref name=REYNOLDS71>Reynolds 1999:71. Detroit's music had hitherto reached British ears as a subset of Chicago house; [Neil] Rushton and the Belleville Three decided to fasten on the word techno – a term that had been bandied about but never stressed – in order to define Detroit as a distinct genre.</ref> Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

In Detroit techno resulted from the melding of African American music including Chicago house, funk, electro, and electric jazz with electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder, and Yellow Magic Orchestra.<ref name="bogdanov_2001">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes<ref>Rietveld 1998:125</ref> relevant to life in American late capitalist society, with Alvin Toffler's book The Third Wave being a notable point of reference.<ref>Sicko 1999:28</ref><ref>Having grown up with the latter-day effects of Fordism, the Detroit techno musicians read futurologist Alvin Toffler's soundbite predictions for change – 'blip culture', 'the intelligent environment', 'the infosphere', 'de-massification of the media de-massifies our minds', 'the techno rebels', 'appropriated technologies' – accorded with some, though not all, of their own intuitions, Toop, D. (1995), Ocean of Sound, Serpent's Tail, (p. 215).</ref> Pioneering producer Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create. This unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism. To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is often a central preoccupation; essentially an expression of technological spirituality.<ref>Kodwo 1998</ref><ref>Reynolds 1999:51. ...techno artists often talk about what they do in the seemingly inappropriate language of traditional humanist art – 'expression', 'soul', 'authenticity', 'depth'.</ref> In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness".<ref>Mc Leod, K.,"Space oddities: aliens, futurism and meaning in popular music", Popular Music (2003) Volume 22/3. Copyright 2003 Cambridge University Press, pp. 337–355.</ref>

Stylistically, techno is generally repetitive instrumental music, oftentimes produced for use in a continuous DJ set. The central rhythmic component is most often in common time (4/4), where time is marked with a bass drum on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare or clap on the second and fourth pulses of the bar, and an open hi-hat sounding every second eighth note. The tempo tends to vary between approximately 120 to 150 beats per minute (bpm), depending on the style of techno. The creative use of music production technology, such as drum machines, synthesizers, and digital audio workstations, is viewed as an important aspect of the music's aesthetic. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound. Drum machines from the 1980s such as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 are highly prized, and software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers.

Music journalists and fans of techno are generally selective in their use of the term; so a clear distinction can be made between sometimes related but often qualitatively different styles, such as tech house and trance. "Techno" is also commonly confused with generalized descriptors, such as electronic music and electronic dance music.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }} Every Monday night, Natania goes to Koncrete Jungle, a dance party on new York's lower East Side that plays a hip, relatively new offshoot of dance music known as drum & bass—or, in a more general way, techno, a blanket term that describes music made on computers and electronic gadgets instead of conventional instruments, and performed by deejays instead of old-fashioned bands.</ref>

Techno sections
Intro  Origins  Developments  Antecedents  Music production practice  Other notable artists  See also  Bibliography  Filmography  References  External links  

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