Format::Classical conditioning


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Format The main page has no fluidity. After the description of Pavlov's experiment it is probably best to have a brief description of classical conditioning as it has been applied to the human condition. This will demonstrate the relevance and importance to the average reader. For example, you could discuss behavior therapy, systematic desensitization, etc. After this, the majority of the rest of the page should discuss theories of classical conditioning. Here you could discuss theories of Rescorla, Wagner, etc. --Dentate 05:14, 15 August 2007 (UTC)

Here is a little list of information that needs to be added with descriptions of each:

Types of Classical Conditioning

Forward Conditioning

The onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. Three common forms of Forward Conditioning are: Short-delay, Long-delay, and Trace.

Short-delay Conditioning

The onset of the US is delayed relative to the onset of the CS. In this procedure, the CS may completely overlap with the US, or the CS may terminate at some point before the US offset. The term "short" refers to the Interstimulus interval (ISI), and is determined by the type of classical conditioning. For example, in some forms of classical conditioning, such as Eyeblink conditioning, ISIs in the range of 100 to 750 msec are typically considered short. In other forms of classical conditioning, such as in Taste aversion, ISIs in the range of minutes to 1 or 2 hours are considered short.

Long-delay Conditioning

In this procedure, the onset of the US is still delayed relative to the onset of the CS, but ISIs are longer than in the Short-delay Procedure. While the difference between Short and Long may appear trivial, the distinction is important because some forms of conditioning are best learned with a long delay, while others are best learned with a short delay.

Trace Conditioning

The CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a period of time is allow to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the US is presented. The stimulus free period is called the trace interval.

Simultaneous Conditioning

The CS and US are presented at the same time.

Backward Conditioning

The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS.

Temporal Conditioning

The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The background, or context, can serve as the CS in this example.

Unpaired Conditioning

The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval. This procedure is used to study non-associative behavioral responses, such as Sensitization.

CS-Alone Extinction

The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired thought Forward Conditioning training. Eventually, the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.

Variations of Classical Conditioning Procedures

In addition to the simple procedures described above, some classical conditioning studies are designed to tap into more complex learning processes. Some common variations are discussed below.

Classical Discrimination/Reversal Conditioning

In this procedure, two CSs and one US are typically used. The CSs may be the same modality (such as lights of different intensity), or they may be different modalities (such as auditory CS and visual CS). In this procedure, one of the CSs is designated CS+ and its presentation is always followed by the US. The other CS is designated CS- and its presentation is never followed by the US. After a number of trials, the organism learns to discriminate CS+ trials and CS- trials such that CRs are only observed on CS- trials.

During Reversal Training, the CS+ and CS- are reversed and subjects learn to suppress responding to the previous CS+ and show CRs to the previous CS-.

Classical ISI Discrimination Conditioning

This is a discrimination procedure in which two different CSs are used to signal two different Interstimulus intervals. For example, a dim light may be presented 30 seconds before a US, while a very bright light is presented 2 minutes before the US. Using this technique, organisms can learn to perform CRs the are appropriately timed for the two distinct CSs. --Dentate 15:14, 16 August 2007 (UTC)

Latent Inhibition Conditioning

In this procedure, a CS is presented several times before paired CS-US training commences. The pre-exposure of the subject to the CS before paired training slows the rate of CR acquisition relative to organisms that are not CS pre-exposed. Also see Latent inhibition for applications.--Dentate 15:14, 16 August 2007 (UTC)

Conditioned Inhibition Conditioning

Three phases of conditioning are typically used:

Phase 1:
A CS (CS+) is paired with a US until asymptotic CR levels are reached.
Phase 2:
CS+/US trials are continued, but interspersed with trials on which the CS+ in compound with a second CS, but not with the US (i.e., CS+/CS- trials). Typically, organisms show CRs on CS+/US trials, but suppress responding on CS+/CS- trials.
Phase 3:
In this retention test, the previous CS- is paired with the US. If conditioned inhibition has occurred, the rate of acquisition to the previous CS- should be impaired relative to organisms that did not experience Phase 2.


This form of classical conditioning also involves three phases.

Phase 1:
A CS (CS1) is paired with a US.
Phase 2:
CS1 is presented in compound with a new CS (CS2), and the compound is paired with the US.
Phase 3:
CS2 is paired with the US. Blocking is measured as an impairment in the rate of learning to CS2 relative to organisms that did not experience Phase 2. Essentially, acquisition to CS2 is blocked during compound training because CRs had already formed to CS1.

Second Order Conditioning

Sensory Preconditioning

Conditional Discrimination

All of this should go after a history of CC section and before any discussion of learning theory. Actually, now that I think of it, discussions of learning theories should really have their own wiki entries. They are far too involved to be relevant on this page.--Dentate 13:15, 16 August 2007 (UTC) </nowiki>

Talk:Classical conditioning sections
Intro  Untitled   Alpha conditioning    Apetite conditioning on snails    similar pages, combine?    Neural structures involved in classical conditioning    Main Article Links    Theories of classical conditioning    Merging two other articles    Aversion Therapy    Little Albert    Format    Difficulty of introduction    Organization?    section removed   Neural structures involved in classical conditioning  soft  Precursors to Pavlov?   The introduction is completely wrong    Types of classical conditioning    Classical Conditioning Graphic   Sterne's Locke    Criteria for a conditioned response   Konorski quote removal   Schmidt quote removal    Which year did Pavlov make his discovery in?    Moved redundant para to talk page   

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