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"Communities participant in the synoecism of Nikopolis and the boundaries of the territory."

Synoecism or synecism ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} si-NEE-siz-əm; Ancient Greek: συνοικισμóς{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, sunoikismos, Ancient Greek: [syːnɔi̯kismós]), also spelled synoikism ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} si-NOY-kiz-əm), was originally the amalgamation of villages in Ancient Greece into poleis, or city-states. Etymologically the word means "dwelling together (syn) in the same house (oikos)." Subsequently any act of civic union between polities of any size was described by the word synoikismos. The closest analogy today is the incorporation of a city; in fact, "incorporation" is often used to translate synoikismos, in addition to the Latinized synoecism. Synoecism is opposed to Greek dioecism (διοικισμóς, dioikismos), the creation of independent communities within the territory of a polis.

Synoecism is the result of a few major factors, mainly an increase in population density of adjacent settlements, with an incorporation proposed for economic, political or ideological advantages, such as the synoecism of the communities of Attica into Athens, or by imposition of a ruling power, such as the synoecism of Messenia into the newly built city of Messene. A dioecism was undertaken for similar reasons, such as the settling of new and independent communities within territory of Constantinople abandoned due to a contraction of population, or the contraction of Thessaloniki out of its former neighborhoods outside the city walls due to the occupation of the countryside by the Turks.<ref name= "dop57">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

A conqueror might break up a polis for various reasons. For example, as part of the settlement of the Third Sacred War in 346 BC, the Amphictyonic League was commissioned to destroy 21 or 22 cities of Phocis, many of which had already been burned. They chose the method of dioecism, returning the poleis to their constituent kōmai, or villages. The city fortifications were then dismantled. This relatively mild destruction was reversed by Athens and Thebes several years later. They were sympathetic to Phocis but their hands had been legally tied. The cities were re-synoecized. The larger states assisted Phocis to rebuild the fortifications.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

Synoecism sections
Intro  Characteristics of a synoecism  Interplay between \"demos\" and \"polis\"  Archaeology  See also  References  Bibliography  [[Synoecism?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

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