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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia; from the Ancient Greek σύν{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} syn, "together", and αἴσθησις{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} aisthēsis, "sensation") is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.<ref name="isbn0-262-03296-1">{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="isbn0-262-53255-7">{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Cytowic_Eagleman2009">{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="isbn0-631-19764-8">{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> People who report such experiences are known as synesthetes.

Difficulties have been recognized in adequately defining synesthesia:<ref name="ideasthesia">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="defsyn">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Many different phenomena have been included in the term synesthesia ("union of the senses"), and in many cases the terminology seems to be inaccurate. A more accurate term may be ideasthesia.

In one common form of synesthesia, known as grapheme → color synesthesia or color-graphemic synesthesia, letters or numbers are perceived as inherently colored.<ref name = "pmid11823804">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="pmid16269367">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> In spatial-sequence, or number form synesthesia, numbers, months of the year, and/or days of the week elicit precise locations in space (for example, 1980 may be "farther away" than 1990), or may appear as a three-dimensional map (clockwise or counterclockwise).<ref name="galton1880b">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="pmid1511585">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Only a fraction of types of synesthesia have been evaluated by scientific research.<ref name="campen2007">{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Awareness of synesthetic perceptions varies from person to person.<ref name="campen2009">Campen, Cretien van (2009) "The Hidden Sense: On Becoming Aware of Synesthesia" TECCOGS, vol. 1, pp. 1-13.[1]</ref>

Although synesthesia was the topic of intensive scientific investigation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was largely abandoned by scientific research in the mid-20th century.<ref name="campen1999">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Psychological research has demonstrated that synesthetic experiences can have measurable behavioral consequences, and functional neuroimaging studies have identified differences in patterns of brain activation.<ref name="pmid16269367" /> Many find that synesthesia aids the creative process.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} Psychologists and neuroscientists study synesthesia not only for its inherent appeal, but also for the insights it may give into cognitive and perceptual processes that occur in synesthetes and non-synesthetes alike.

Synesthesia sections
Intro  Characteristics  Forms  Cause  Mechanism  Diagnostic criteria  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  Research  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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