Actions

::Symbiosis

::concepts



{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}}

CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Symbiosis (from Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living")<ref>, </ref> is close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species. In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the word symbiosis (which previously had been used to depict people living together in community) to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens.<ref></ref> In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms."<ref name="Wilkinson 2001">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>

The definition of symbiosis has varied among scientists. Some believe symbiosis should only refer to persistent mutualisms, while others believe it should apply to any type of persistent biological interaction (i.e. mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic).<ref name="Douglas 2010 5-12">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> After 130 years of debate,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> current biology and ecology textbooks now use the latter "de Bary" definition or an even broader definition (i.e. symbiosis = all species interactions), with the restrictive definition no longer used (i.e. symbiosis = mutualism).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

Some symbiotic relationships are obligate, meaning that both symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival. For example, many lichens consist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts that cannot live on their own.<ref name="Wilkinson 2001"/><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Douglas 2010 4">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Others are facultative, meaning that they can, but do not have to live with the other organism.

Symbiotic relationships include those associations in which one organism lives on another (ectosymbiosis, such as mistletoe), or where one partner lives inside the other (endosymbiosis, such as lactobacilli and other bacteria in humans or Symbiodinium in corals).<ref name="Moran 2006">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="ParacerAhmadjian 2000 p12">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Symbiosis is also classified by physical attachment of the organisms; symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis.<ref name="Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 2007">"symbiosis." Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012</ref>


Symbiosis sections
Intro   Physical interaction    Mutualism    Commensalism    Parasitism    Amensalism   Synnecrosis  Symbiosis and evolution  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Physical interaction
<<>>

First::title    Journal::pages    Citation::volume    Issue::harvnb    Which::species    Between::plants

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}}

CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Symbiosis (from Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living")<ref>, </ref> is close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species. In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the word symbiosis (which previously had been used to depict people living together in community) to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens.<ref></ref> In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms."<ref name="Wilkinson 2001">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>

The definition of symbiosis has varied among scientists. Some believe symbiosis should only refer to persistent mutualisms, while others believe it should apply to any type of persistent biological interaction (i.e. mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic).<ref name="Douglas 2010 5-12">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> After 130 years of debate,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> current biology and ecology textbooks now use the latter "de Bary" definition or an even broader definition (i.e. symbiosis = all species interactions), with the restrictive definition no longer used (i.e. symbiosis = mutualism).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

Some symbiotic relationships are obligate, meaning that both symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival. For example, many lichens consist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts that cannot live on their own.<ref name="Wilkinson 2001"/><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Douglas 2010 4">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Others are facultative, meaning that they can, but do not have to live with the other organism.

Symbiotic relationships include those associations in which one organism lives on another (ectosymbiosis, such as mistletoe), or where one partner lives inside the other (endosymbiosis, such as lactobacilli and other bacteria in humans or Symbiodinium in corals).<ref name="Moran 2006">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="ParacerAhmadjian 2000 p12">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Symbiosis is also classified by physical attachment of the organisms; symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis.<ref name="Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 2007">"symbiosis." Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012</ref>


Symbiosis sections
Intro   Physical interaction    Mutualism    Commensalism    Parasitism    Amensalism   Synnecrosis  Symbiosis and evolution  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Physical interaction
<<>>