::Suez Canal


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Northern outlet of the Suez
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The southern terminus of the Suez Canal at Suez on the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea)

The Suez Canal (Arabic: قناة السويس‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Qanāt al-Suways) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. Opened 17 November 1869, after 10 years of construction, it allows ships to travel between Europe and South Asia without navigating around Africa thereby reducing the sea voyage distance between Europe and India by about {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}. A new stretch of the canal was opened in 2015.<ref></ref> The northern terminus is Port Said, where there are two outlets to the sea; the southern terminus is Port Tewfik at the city of Suez, where there is one outlet to the sea. Ismailia is on its west bank, {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} from the half-way point.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal (47 per day).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

When built, the canal was {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} long and {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} deep. After several enlargements, it is {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} long, {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} deep and {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} wide.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It consists of the northern access channel of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, the canal itself of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} and the southern access channel of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The canal is single-lane with passing places in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.<ref>Suez Canal Authority</ref> It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.<ref name = rsp>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag."<ref>Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act.</ref>

In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass, for {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, costing $8.4 billion, to speed the canal's transit time. Funding was arranged by issuing interest-bearing investment certificates exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals, and the target amount was collected over eight working days. The expansion is expected to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day.<ref name="SuezExpansion">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Suez Canal sections
Intro  History  Canal layout and operation  Alternative routes  Environmental impact  Timeline  See also  References  Sources  External links  

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