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Republic of the Sudan
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Flag of Sudan Emblem of Sudan
Flag Emblem
Motto: النصر لنا{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (language?)
"An-Naṣr lanā"
"Victory is ours"
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green.
Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green.
Location of Sudan
CapitalKhartoum
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Largest city Omdurman<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Official languages {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Religion Islam and Christianity
Demonym Sudanese
Government Dominant-party federal presidential republic
 -  President Omar al-Bashir (NCP)
 -  Vice President Bakri Hassan Saleh
Legislature National Legislature
 -  Upper house Council of States
 -  Lower house National Assembly
Formation
 -  Nubian kingdoms 3500 BC 
 -  Sennar dynasty 1504<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Unified with Egypt 1820 
 -  Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1899 
 -  Independence (from the United Kingdom and Egypt) 1 January 1956 
 -  Current constitution 9 January 2005 
 -  Secession of South Sudan 15 January 2011 
Area
 -  Total 1,886,068 km2 (16th)
728,215 sq mi
Population
 -  2015 estimate 40,235,000<ref>"United Nations world population prospects"(PDF) 2015 revision</ref> (35th)
 -  2008 census 30,894,000 (disputed) <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Density 16.4/km2
42.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $159.5 billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Per capita $4,521<ref name=imf2/>
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $70.0 billion<ref name=imf2/>
 -  Per capita $1,985<ref name=imf2/>
Gini (2009)35.3<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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medium
HDI (2013)11px 0.473<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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low · 166th
Currency Sudanese pound (SDG)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +249
ISO 3166 code SD
Internet TLD .sd, سودان.

Sudan (Arabic: السودان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} as-Sūdān {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> officially the Republic of the Sudan<ref name="cia"/> (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves.<ref>Collins, Robert O. (2008). A History of Modern Sudan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85820-5.</ref> Its predominant religion is Islam.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.<ref name="Keita, S.O.Y. 1993 129–54">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> By virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language (earliest records dating to the 9th century). Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa (after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and also the third largest country in the Arab world (after Algeria and Saudi Arabia).

Sudan is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as an observer in the World Trade Organization.<ref name="cia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. It is a federal presidential representative democratic republic. The politics of Sudan is regulated by a parliamentary organization called the National Assembly.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law.



Sudan sections
Intro  Name  History  Geography  Government and politics  States and regions  Economy  Demographics  Culture  Education  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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