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::Sub-Saharan Africa

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Africa::'''''    African::title    Language::world    South::'''''cur    Thumb::people    Sudan::congo

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CitationClass=web }} "The designation sub-Saharan Africa is commonly used to indicate all of Africa except northern Africa, with the Sudan included in sub-Saharan Africa."</ref>
Simplified climatic map of Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa consists of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa in the north (yellow), the tropical savannas (light green) and the tropical rainforests (dark green) of Equatorial Africa, and the arid Kalahari Basin (yellow) and the "Mediterranean" south coast (olive) of Southern Africa. The numbers shown correspond to the dates of all Iron Age artifacts associated with the Bantu expansion.

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan, even though Sudan sits in the Eastern portion of the Sahara desert).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web

}}</ref> It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros, and Mauritania are geographically part of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also part of the Arab world.<ref>Halim Barakat, The Arab World: Society, Culture, and State, (University of California Press: 1993), p.80

Arab League Online: League of Arab States<p>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}<p>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}<p>Khair El-Din Haseeb et al., The Future of the Arab Nation: Challenges and Options, 1 edition (Routledge: 1991), p.54<p>John Markakis, Resource conflict in the Horn of Africa, (Sage: 1998), p.39<p>Ḥagai Erlikh, The struggle over Eritrea, 1962-1978: war and revolution in the Horn of Africa, (Hoover Institution Press: 1983), p.59<p>Randall Fegley, Eritrea, (Clio Press: 1995), p.xxxviii<p>Michael Frishkopf, Music and Media in the Arab World, (American University in Cairo Press: 2010), p.61</ref> The Sahel is the transitional zone between the Sahara and the tropical savanna (the Sudan region) and forest-savanna mosaic to the south. Since probably 3500 B.C.E,<ref>"Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks", Science Daily.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}<p>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile River in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority; a vestige of colonialism, which some say, divided Africa into European terms of homogeneity.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>
Sub-Saharan Africa sections
Intro  Etymology  Climate zones and ecoregions  History  Demographics  Economy  Education  Health care  Religion  Culture  Music  Art  Cuisine  Clothing  Sports  Tourism  List of countries and regional organisation  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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