Contemporary steel::Steel


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Contemporary steel

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Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania was one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its 2003 closure and later conversion into a casino.

Carbon steels

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes.<ref name="materialsengineer"/> Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production.<ref name=EM2/> Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections.<ref name=EM2/> High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high strength steel.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Carbon Steels are often galvanized, through hot-dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Alloy steels

Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the austenitic, are nonmagnetic.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Corrosion-resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES.

Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance.<ref name=EM2/> Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains little carbon 0.01%). This creates a very strong but still malleable steel.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain hardens to form an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.<ref>Hadfield manganese steel. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.</ref>

In 2015 a breakthrough in creating a strong light aluminium steel alloy which might be suitable in applications such as aircraft was announced by researchers at Pohang University of Science and Technology. Adding small amounts of nickel was found to result in precipitation as nano particles of brittle B2 intermetallic compounds which had previously resulted in weakness. The result was a cheap strong light steel alloy—nearly as strong as titanium at ten percent the cost<ref name=pm20150204> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>— which is slated for trial production{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=When |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[when?] }} at industrial scale by POSCO, a Korean steelmaker.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name=Nature02515>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel.<ref name=bringas>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The American Society for Testing and Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel in the United States.<ref>Steel Construction Manual, 8th Edition, second revised edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, 1986, ch. 1 page 1-5</ref>

Steel sections
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Contemporary steel
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