::Stanford University


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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use mdy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's leading educational institutions,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland Stanford, former Governor of and U.S. Senator from California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford, in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford, Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was opened on October 1, 1891<ref name="StanfordAboutHistory"/><ref name="facultyguidehistory"/> as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Tuition was free until 1920.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The university struggled financially after Leland Stanford's 1893 death and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes (precursor to the Internet).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The main campus is located in northern Santa Clara Valley adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Other holdings, such as laboratories, and nature reserves, are located outside the main campus.<ref name="stanford_facts_glance">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="stanford_where">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Its {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}<ref name="stanford_where"/> campus is one of the largest in the United States.<ref name="virtualtour"/> The university is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.<ref name="Record Fundraising"/>

Stanford's academic strength is broad with 40 departments in the three academic schools that have undergraduate students and another four professional schools. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pacific-12 Conference. It has gained 107 NCAA team championships, the second-most for a university, 476 individual championships, the most in Division I,<ref name=ncaa-championship>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and has won the NACDA Directors' Cup, recognizing the university with the best overall athletic team achievement, every year since 1994-1995.<ref name="learfield2015">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Stanford faculty and alumni have founded many companies including Google, Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Sun Microsystems, Instagram and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires, 17 astronauts, and 18 Turing Award laureates.Unknown extension tag "ref" It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The University has affiliated with 59 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields Medalists (when awarded).<ref name=nobels>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Stanford University sections
Intro  History  Campus  Administration and organization  Academics  Student life  People  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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