::Sobibór extermination camp

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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Sobibór (pronounced [sɔˈbʲibur], or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the village of Sobibór, in occupied Poland, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government, during World War II. The camp was part of the secretive Operation Reinhard, which marked the deadliest phase of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland. The camp was situated near the rural county's major town of Włodawa (called Wolzek by the Germans), 85 km south of the provincial capital, Brest-on-the-Bug (Brześć nad Bugiem in Polish). Its official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibór.<ref name="Shirer968">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Jews from Poland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, as well as the Soviet POWs, were transported to Sobibór by rail. Most were suffocated in gas chambers fed by the exhaust of a large petrol engine.<ref name="Schelvis100">Schelvis 2007, p. 100: Testimony of SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs about his own installation of the (at least) 200 HP, V-shaped, 8 cylinder, water-cooled petrol engine at Sobibor.</ref> Up to 200,000 people were murdered at Sobibór<ref>Raul Hilberg. The Destruction of the European Jews. Yale University Press, 1985, p. 1219. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9</ref> and possibly more. At the postwar trial against the former SS personnel of Sobibór, held in Hagen two decades into the Cold War, Professor Wolfgang Scheffler estimated the number of murdered Jews totalled a minimum of 250,000.<ref name=Blatt>Sobibor − The Forgotten Revolt (Internet Archive). Webpage featuring first-person account of Holocaust survivor and Sonderkommando prisoner age 16, Thomas 'Toivi' Blatt.</ref><ref name="H.H.2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

During the revolt of 14 October 1943, about 600 prisoners tried to escape; about half succeeded in crossing the fence, of whom around 50 evaded capture. Shortly after the revolt, the Germans closed the camp, bulldozed the earth, and planted it over with pine trees to conceal its location. Today, the site is occupied by the Sobibór Museum, which displays a pyramid of ashes and crushed bones of the victims, collected from the cremation pits.

In September 2014, a team of archaeologists unearthed remains of the gas chambers under the asphalt road. Also discovered in 2014 were a pendant inscribed with the word "Palestine", in Hebrew, English, and Arabic, dating from 1927; earrings; a wedding band bearing a Hebrew inscription; and perfume bottles that belonged to Jewish victims.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Sobibór extermination camp sections
Intro  Background  Killing process  [[Sobibór_extermination_camp?section=The_uprising_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|The uprising {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}]]  Operational structure  Chain of Command table  Death toll  Commemoration  Dramatisations and recorded memories of the camp  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Sobibór (pronounced [sɔˈbʲibur], or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the village of Sobibór, in occupied Poland, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government, during World War II. The camp was part of the secretive Operation Reinhard, which marked the deadliest phase of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland. The camp was situated near the rural county's major town of Włodawa (called Wolzek by the Germans), 85 km south of the provincial capital, Brest-on-the-Bug (Brześć nad Bugiem in Polish). Its official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibór.<ref name="Shirer968">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Jews from Poland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, as well as the Soviet POWs, were transported to Sobibór by rail. Most were suffocated in gas chambers fed by the exhaust of a large petrol engine.<ref name="Schelvis100">Schelvis 2007, p. 100: Testimony of SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs about his own installation of the (at least) 200 HP, V-shaped, 8 cylinder, water-cooled petrol engine at Sobibor.</ref> Up to 200,000 people were murdered at Sobibór<ref>Raul Hilberg. The Destruction of the European Jews. Yale University Press, 1985, p. 1219. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9</ref> and possibly more. At the postwar trial against the former SS personnel of Sobibór, held in Hagen two decades into the Cold War, Professor Wolfgang Scheffler estimated the number of murdered Jews totalled a minimum of 250,000.<ref name=Blatt>Sobibor − The Forgotten Revolt (Internet Archive). Webpage featuring first-person account of Holocaust survivor and Sonderkommando prisoner age 16, Thomas 'Toivi' Blatt.</ref><ref name="H.H.2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

During the revolt of 14 October 1943, about 600 prisoners tried to escape; about half succeeded in crossing the fence, of whom around 50 evaded capture. Shortly after the revolt, the Germans closed the camp, bulldozed the earth, and planted it over with pine trees to conceal its location. Today, the site is occupied by the Sobibór Museum, which displays a pyramid of ashes and crushed bones of the victims, collected from the cremation pits.

In September 2014, a team of archaeologists unearthed remains of the gas chambers under the asphalt road. Also discovered in 2014 were a pendant inscribed with the word "Palestine", in Hebrew, English, and Arabic, dating from 1927; earrings; a wedding band bearing a Hebrew inscription; and perfume bottles that belonged to Jewish victims.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Sobibór extermination camp sections
Intro  Background  Killing process  [[Sobibór_extermination_camp?section=The_uprising_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|The uprising {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}]]  Operational structure  Chain of Command table  Death toll  Commemoration  Dramatisations and recorded memories of the camp  See also  Notes  References  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Background
<<>>