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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} The sievert (symbol: Sv)<ref group="note">Not be confused with the sverdrup, a non-SI unit of volume transport which carries the same symbol.</ref> is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI). It is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.

Quantities that are measured in sieverts are intended to represent the stochastic health risk, which for radiation dose assessment is defined as the probability of cancer induction and genetic damage.<ref>The ICRP says "In the low dose range, below about 100 mSv, it is scientifically plausible to assume that the incidence of cancer or heritable effects will rise in direct proportion to an increase in the equivalent dose in the relevant organs and tissues" ICRP publication 103 paragraph 64</ref>

The sievert is used for radiation dose quantities such as equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose. It is used both to represent the risk of the effect of external radiation from sources outside the body, and the effect of internal irradiation due to inhaled or ingested radioactive substances.

Conventionally the sievert is not used for high dose rates of radiation which produce deterministic effects, which is the severity of acute tissue damage which is certain to happen. These effects are compared to the physical quantity absorbed dose measured by the unit gray (Gy).<ref>ICRP report 103 para 104 and 105</ref>

To enable consideration of stochastic health risk, calculations are performed to convert the physical quantity absorbed dose into equivalent and effective doses, the details of which depend on the radiation type and biological context. For applications in radiation protection and dosimetry assessment the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have published recommendations and data which are used to calculate these.

The sievert is of fundamental importance in dosimetry and radiation protection, and is named after Rolf Maximilian Sievert, a Swedish medical physicist renowned for work on radiation dosage measurement and research into the biological effects of radiation. One sievert carries with it a 5.5% chance of eventually developing cancer.<ref name="ICRP103" />

One sievert equals 100 rem. The rem is an older, non-SI unit of measurement.

To enable a comprehensive view of the sievert this article deals with the definition of the sievert as an SI unit, summarises the recommendations of the ICRU and ICRP on how the sievert is calculated, includes a guide to the effects of ionizing radiation as measured in sieverts, and gives examples of approximate figures of dose uptake in certain situations.


Sievert sections
Intro  Definition  External dose quantities  Calculating protection dose quantities  Operational quantities  Internal dose quantities  Health effects  Dose examples  History  Common SI usage  Radiation-related quantities  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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